Form S-1/A

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 2, 2022.

Registration No. 333-265769

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

Amendment No. 2

to

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Palisade Bio, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   2834   52-2007292
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

Palisade Bio, Inc.

5800 Armada Drive, Suite 210

Carlsbad, California 92008

(858) 704-4900

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Thomas Hallam, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer

Palisade Bio, Inc.

5800 Armada Drive, Suite 210

Carlsbad, California 92008

(858) 704-4900

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Karen Deschaine, Esq.   Michael F. Nertney
Cooley LLP   Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP
4401 Eastgate Mall   1345 Avenue of the Americas, 11th Floor
San Diego, California 92121   New York, New York 10105
(858) 550-6000   (212) 370-1300

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


Explanatory Note

This Amendment No. 2 is being filed solely for the purpose of filing the exhibits indicated in Item 16 of Part II of the Registration Statement. No change is made to the prospectus constituting Part I of the Registration Statement or Items 13, 14, 15 and 17 of Part II of the Registration Statement.


PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 13.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth the expenses to be incurred in connection with the offering described in this registration statement, all of which will be paid by the registrant. All amounts are estimates except the SEC registration fee.

 

     Amount  

SEC registration fee

   $ 2,213  

FINRA filing fee

   $ 1,700  

Printing expenses

   $ 55,000  

Legal fees and expenses

   $ 320,000  

Accounting fees and expenses

   $ 48,000  

Transfer agent fees and expenses

   $ 12,000  

Miscellaneous fees and expenses

   $ 1,117  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 440,030  
  

 

 

 

 

Item 14.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers

We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Sections 145 and 102(b)(7) of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provide that a corporation may indemnify any person made a party to an action by reason of the fact that he or she was a director, executive officer, employee or agent of the corporation or is or was serving at the request of the corporation against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection with such action if he or she acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of an action by or in right of the corporation, no indemnification may generally be made in respect of any claim as to which such person is adjudged to be liable to the corporation.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that eliminate, to the maximum extent permitted by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, the personal liability of directors and executive officers for monetary damages for breach of their fiduciary duties as a director or officer. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers and may indemnify our employees and other agents to the fullest extent permitted by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer of our company against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.

We have entered, and intend to continue to enter, into separate indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers to provide these directors and executive officers additional contractual assurances regarding the scope of the indemnification set forth in the registrant’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and to provide additional procedural protections. At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or executive officer of the Company regarding which indemnification is sought. The indemnification provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and the indemnification agreements entered into or to be entered into between us and each of our directors and executive officers may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of our directors and executive officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act. Insofar as indemnification


for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, the registrant has been informed that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is therefore unenforceable. We carry liability insurance for our directors and officers.

 

Item 15.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

Set forth below is information regarding securities sold by us since January 1, 2019 that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act). Also included is the consideration, if any, received by us for such shares and options and information relating to the section of the Securities Act, or rule of the Securities and Exchange Commission, under which exemption from registration was claimed. The information set forth below does not give retroactive effect to the Reverse Stock Split.

 

(a)

Issuances of Securities

 

  1.

On January 17, 2020, we entered into a letter agreement (“Letter Agreement”) with certain institutional warrant holders of our Series M Warrants and Series N Warrants (each as defined below) (collectively, the “Holders”), pursuant which each Holder will received:

 

  a.

one (1) Series P common stock replacement warrant (“Series P Warrant”) for every one (1) share purchased upon exercise of outstanding Series M common stock purchase warrants (“Series M Warrants”) issued on July 30, 2019 in the Company’s registered offering; and

 

  b.

one (1) Series Q common stock replacement warrant (“Series Q Warrant”) for every one (1) share purchased upon exercise of outstanding Series N common stock purchase warrants (“Series N Warrants”) issued on July 30, 2019 in the Company’s registered offering

Pursuant to the Letter Agreement, and as an inducement to exercise the Series M Warrants and Series N Warrants, the exercise price of the Holder’s Series M Warrants and Series N Warrants are being reduced from $2.70 to $1.36 per share. The Holders collectively owned (i) 2,777,777 Series M Warrants and (ii) 2,777,777 Series N Warrants. The Company received gross proceeds of approximately $7,555,553, not including closing costs and placement agent fees. In connection with the transactions contemplated in the Letter Agreement, we entered into a letter agreement (the “Wainwright Placement Agent Agreement”) with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC (“Wainwright”), pursuant to which Wainwright was entitled to (i) a cash fee equal to 8% of the gross proceeds raised in the transactions contemplated by the Letter Agreement, (ii) a common stock purchase warrant equal to 44,444 shares of common stock issued in the Offering with an exercise price of $1.70, and a term of five (5) years (the “Placement Agent Warrant”), (iii) a management fee equal to 1.0% of the gross proceeds raised, (iv) $35,000 for non-accountable expenses; and (v) up to $90,000 in expenses of legal counsel and other out-of-pocket closing expenses. Additionally, Wainwright received a tail fee of 8% cash and 8% warrant coverage as described above with respect to any additional financing completed with any investors that entered into the Letter Agreement within the 12-month period following date of the Letter Agreement. Additionally, for a period of ten (10) months following the closing of the transaction contemplated by the Letter Agreement, Wainwright will have a right of first refusal to act as the sole book-running manager, underwriter, or placement agent for any future capital raising transactions.

 

  2.

In connection with the sale of 5,000,000 shares of common stock pursuant to an effective registration statement on Form S-3, on May 22, 2020, we issued warrants to Wainwright pursuant to the Wainwright Placement Agent Agreement to purchase up to 400,000 shares of common stock. Such warrants are immediately exercisable, have an exercise price of $1.25 per share, and expire on the 5-year anniversary of May 22, 2020.

 

  3.

Immediately prior to the Merger, we and LBS completed a private placement transaction (the “Pre-Merger Financing”) with Altium Growth Fund, LP (“Altium”) pursuant to that certain Securities Purchase Agreement, by and among us, LBS and the Investor, dated December 16, 2020, as amended


  (the “Securities Purchase Agreement”), for an aggregate purchase price of $20.0 million. In connection with the closing of the Merger and the Pre-Merger Financing, we issued to Ecoban Securities, LLC (i) a warrant to purchase 18,353 shares of the Company’s common stock at a price of $17.72 per share and (ii) 118,833 shares of common stock, as payment for a success fee for closing the Merger and Pre-Merger Financing.

 

  4.

On May 20, 2021, we issued to Altium a warrant to purchase 4,995,893 shares of common stock at a price of $5.53 per share. The warrant was immediately exercisable and has a term of five years from the date all of the shares underlying the warrant have been registered for resale.

 

  5.

In 2020, LBS sold to certain holders unsecured promissory notes in the aggregate principal amount of $0.6 million and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 70,000 shares of common stock of LBS at an exercise price of $0.73 per share (the “Old Warrants”). In connection with the Merger, such warrants automatically converted into warrants to purchase an aggregate of 1,904 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $26.84 per share. On May 25, 2021, we amended such notes originally issued by LBS in 2020 in order to extend the maturity date. In connection with such amendments, the Old Warrants were canceled, and the Company issued warrants to the noteholders to purchase an aggregate of 8,000 shares of Company common stock at a purchase price of $6.00 per share.

 

  6.

Effective July 21, 2021, we entered into a Waiver and Amendment Agreement with Altium pursuant to which Altium agreed to waive certain rights, waive reset provisions with respect to the exercise price and number of shares subject to outstanding warrants held by Altium, eliminate certain financing restrictions, and accelerate registration rights for the shares underlying the warrants. As consideration for the foregoing, pursuant to the Waiver Agreement, we issued Altium an additional warrant to purchase up to 1,100,000 shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $3.631 per share. The warrant is exercisable beginning six months following the date on which the underlying shares are registered for resale and for five years thereafter.

 

  7.

On August 19, 2021, we issued 1,509,896 shares of common stock and a warrant to purchase up to 377,474 shares of common stock to Yuma Regional Medical Center for a total purchase price of $5,209,141.20. The shares were sold at a purchase price of $3.45 per share. The warrant has an exercise price of $3.45 per share, subject to certain adjustments, and is exercisable for five years.

 

  8.

Effective January 31, 2022, we and Altium entered into a Waiver and Amendment Agreement, pursuant to which Altium agreed to waive any adjustment to the exercise price of the existing warrants held by it from and after such date for issuances of equity or equity-linked securities at a price below the exercise price of the warrants. The Waiver Agreement also includes agreement to, among other things, (i) restrict Altium’s ability to sell our securities through a “leak out” provision whereby sales are restricted by applying a volume limitation, (ii) shorten the notice period for Altium’s participation rights related to certain future securities offerings, (iii) restrict our ability to conduct a primary offering of our securities for a specified period of time, and (iv) provide registration rights for the shares underlying the warrant issued to Altium in consideration of the foregoing. As consideration for the foregoing, pursuant to the Waiver Agreement, we issued Altium an additional warrant to purchase up to 2,250,000 shares of our common stock. The warrant is exercisable beginning six months following January 31, 2022 and the exercise price is $1.10 (the closing price of our common stock on January 28, 2022), subject to customary adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, stock combinations, reclassifications and similar transactions.

 

  9.

On May 6, 2022, we entered into a securities purchase agreement with certain institutional and accredited investors, pursuant to which we agreed to sell and issue, in a registered direct offering, an aggregate of 3,646,690 shares our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, at a purchase price per share of $0.55, for aggregate gross proceeds to us of approximately $2.0 million, before deducting fees payable to the placement agent and other estimated offering expenses payable by us. The shares were offered pursuant to an effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3. In connection with such offering, in a concurrent private placement, we also agreed to sell and issue to such purchasers warrants to purchase up to 3,646,690 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $0.7105 per share, the closing bid price of our common stock on May 5, 2022. Such warrants are not exercisable until six


  months following the date of issuance and expire five and a half years from the date of issuance. In addition, pursuant to a placement agency agreement dated as of May 6, 2022, we engaged Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. (“Ladenburg”) to act as our exclusive placement agent in connection with the aforementioned registered offering and private placement offering. We agreed to pay Ladenburg a cash fee equal to 7.75% of the aggregate gross proceeds raised in the aforementioned registered offering and private placement offering and to reimburse its expenses up to an aggregate of $85,000. In addition, we issued Ladenburg warrants on substantially the same terms as the warrants issued to the purchasers in an amount equal to 6.0% of the aggregate number of shares sold in the offering, or 218,801 shares of common stock, at an exercise price of $0.7105 per share and a five-and-a-half year term. The placement agent warrants are not exercisable until six months following the date of issuance.

The offers, sales and issuances of the securities described in this section (a) of Item 15 were deemed to be exempt from registration under the Securities Act in reliance on Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act or Rule 506 of Regulation D promulgated under the Securities Act as transactions by an issuer not involving a public offering. The recipients of securities in each of these transactions acquired the securities for investment only and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution thereof and appropriate legends were affixed to the securities issued in these transactions. Each of the recipients of securities in these transactions was an accredited investor within the meaning of Rule 501 of Regulation D under the Securities Act and had adequate access, through employment, business or other relationships, to information about the Company.

 

(b)

Issuances of Equity Awards

 

   

In February 2019, as partial compensation for consulting services, we issued to one of our consultants, stock purchase warrants to purchase 25,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $6.00 per share. 25% of the warrants are exercisable on the grant date and 75% are exercisable upon completion of initial services. The warrants have a five-year term commencing on January 2019.

 

   

In February 2019, as compensation for service on the Board, we made a conditional grant to Binxian Wei of options to purchase 5,925 shares of our common stock. The options have a term of 10 years, vest quarterly over the grant year and have an exercise price of $8.80.

 

   

In June 2019, as compensation for service on the Board, we issued to a new director stock options to purchase 455 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $7.20 per share. The options were issued pursuant to our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, have a term of 10 years and vested on June 30, 2019.

 

   

In July 2019, as compensation for service on the Board, we issued certain equity awards to members of our Board pursuant to our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan. Specifically, we issued stock options to purchase 65,590 shares of common stock at exercise prices ranging from $5.90 to $6.00; 4,904 restricted stock units and 15,689 shares of restricted stock. The awards all vest quarterly over the Board year and the options and restricted stock units have a term of 10 years.

 

   

On April 1, 2020, Seneca Biopharma entered into employment agreements with each of Dane Saglio and Matthew Kalnik, PhD. As an inducement to Mr. Saglio’s employment, we granted him a non-qualified inducement option to purchase up to 70,710 shares of Common Stock on such date. As an inducement to Dr. Kalnik’s employment, we granted him a non-qualified inducement option to purchase up to 282,840 shares of Common Stock on such date. These inducement options had an exercise price of $0.6199 per share, a term of ten (10) years, and vests as follows: (i) one quarter (1/4) of the options vest on April 1, 2020, and (ii) the remaining three-quarters (3/4) of the options will vest on a monthly basis over the thirty-six (36) month period following such date. This inducement option was issued from the Company’s Inducement Award Stock Option Plan (“Inducement Plan”).

 

   

Effective April 2020, we granted Dr. Kenneth Carter, our then-Executive Chairman, a conditional option grant to purchase 471,400 shares of common stock, subject to the receipt of shareholder approval as well as the forfeiture of all of his previously issued vested and unvested grants. The option grant had a term of ten (10) years, and an exercise price of $0.6199. The option vests (i) one quarter (1/4) on the effective date and (ii) three quarters (3/4) on a monthly basis over the thirty-six (36) month period following the effective date, provided Dr. Carter remains a service provider to the Company over such period. For a period of nine (9) months, subject to adjustment upon the Company’s issuance


 

of common stock including by virtue of exercise, conversion or exchange of common stock equivalents, the shares underlying the options are subject to adjustment to maintain the percentage ownership that the option grant reflects on the date of grant. This resulted in the grant being increased to 864,785 shares of common stock through December 31, 2020. This grant was approved by shareholders on September 9, 2020.

 

   

Effective April 2020, our Senior Vice President of Research and Development received a conditional option grant to purchase 94,280 shares of common stock, subject to the receipt of shareholder approval as well as the forfeiture of all of his previously issued vested and unvested grants. The option grant has a term of ten (10) years, and an exercise price of $0.6199. The option vests (i) one quarter (1/4) on the effective date and (ii) three quarters (3/4) on a monthly basis over the thirty-six (36) month period following the effective date, provided that such individual remains a service provider to the Company over such period. For a period of nine (9) months, subject to adjustment upon the Company’s issuance of common stock including by virtue of exercise, conversion or exchange of common stock equivalents, the shares underlying the options are subject to adjustment to maintain the percentage ownership that the option grant reflects on the date of grant. This resulted in the grant being increased to 172,957 shares of common stock through December 31, 2020. This grant was approved by shareholders on September 9, 2020.

 

   

On April 3, 2020, we issued an aggregate of 24,000 restricted stock units (6,000 to each of our then-current directors) as partial compensation for their service on the Board.

 

   

On April 1, 2021, we issued an aggregate of 24,000 restricted stock units (6,000 to each of our then current directors) as partial compensation for their service on the Board.

 

   

On September 8, 2021, we issued 12,500 shares of common stock to a consultant in exchange for services to the Company.

The offers, sales and issuances of the securities described in this section (b) of Item 15 were deemed to be exempt from registration under the Securities Act in reliance on Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act or Rule 506 of D promulgated under the Securities Act as transactions by an issuer not involving a public offering. The recipients of securities in each of these transactions acquired the securities for investment only and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution thereof and appropriate legends were affixed to the securities issued in these transactions. Each of the recipients of securities in these transactions was an accredited investor within the meaning of Rule 501 of Regulation D under the Securities Act and had adequate access, through employment, business or other relationships, to information about the Company.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

(a) Exhibits

 

Exhibit
Number
  Description of document
  1.1*  

Form of Underwriting Agreement

  2.1†   Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of December  16, 2020, by and among Seneca Biopharma, Inc., Leading BioSciences, Inc. and Townsgate Acquisition Sub 1, Inc. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 21, 2020).
  3.1   Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on April 27, 2021).
  3.2   Certificate of Designation of Series A 4.5% Convertible Preferred Stock (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.01 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 12, 2016).
  3.3   Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.01 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on November 16, 2015).
  3.4*   Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Series B Preferred Stock.


Exhibit
Number
   Description of document
  4.1    Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 , and 3.4.
  4.2    Description of Securities (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on March 17, 2022).
  4.3    Specimen Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.3 to the Registrant’s Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on March 17, 2022).
  4.4    Form of Series A Preferred Stock Certificate (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.01 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on September 12, 2016).
  4.5    Form of Consulting Warrant issued January 2011 and March 2012 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.01 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-188859) original filed with the SEC on May 24, 2013.
  4.6    Form of Common Stock Purchase Warrant from August 2017 Public Offering Dated August  1, 2017 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.01 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on July 28, 2017).
  4.7    Form of Common Stock Purchase Warrant from October 2018 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, originally filed with the SEC on October 29, 2018).
  4.8    Form of Placement Agent Common Stock Purchase Warrant from October 2018 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, originally filed with the SEC on October 29, 2018).
  4.9    Consultant Warrant for Hibiscus BioVentures, LLC issued January 2019 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.40 to the Registrant’s Form 10-Q, originally filed with the SEC on May 14, 2019).
  4.10    Form of Series M and Series N warrant from July 2019 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.45 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (File No. 333-232273), filed with the SEC on July 24, 2019).
  4.11    Letter Agreement from January 2020 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.01 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, originally filed with the SEC on January 22, 2020).
  4.12    Form of Series O Pre-Funded Warrant from July 2019 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.46 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (File No. 333-232273), filed with the SEC on July 24, 2019).
  4.13    Form of Series Q Replacement Warrant issued in January 2020 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.02 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, originally filed with the SEC on January 22, 2020).
  4.14    Form of Placement Agent Agreement from January 2020 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.02 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, originally filed with the SEC on January 22, 2020).
  4.15    Form of Placement Agent Warrant issued in January 2020 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.03 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, originally filed with the SEC on January 22, 2020).
  4.16    Form of Placement Agent Warrant issued in May 2020 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.01 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, originally filed with the SEC on May 27, 2020).


Exhibit
Number
   Description of document
  4.17    Form of Securities Purchase Agreement with Investors from May 2020 Offering (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.01 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, originally filed with the SEC on May 27, 2020).
  4.18    Form of Warrant to Purchase Shares of Common Stock of Leading BioSciences, Inc. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.30 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File No. 333-251659), originally filed with the SEC on December 23, 2020, as amended).
  4.19    Form of Bridge Warrant of Leading BioSciences, Inc. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 21, 2020).
  4.20    Form of Equity Warrant of Leading BioSciences, Inc. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 21, 2020).
  4.21†    Registration Rights Agreement, by and between Seneca Biopharma, Inc. and the investor party thereto, dated December  16, 2020 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.3 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 21, 2020).
  4.22    Waiver Agreement, dated as of July  21, 2021, by and between Palisade Bio, Inc. and Altium Growth Fund, LP (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on July 22, 2021).
  4.23    Warrant, dated as of July  21, 2021, issued to Altium Growth Fund, LP (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on July 22, 2021).
  4.24    Waiver Agreement, dated as of January  31, 2022, by and between Palisade Bio, Inc. and Altium Growth Fund, LP (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on February  21, 2022).
  4.25    Warrant, dated as of January  31, 2022, issued to Altium Growth Fund, LP (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on February 21, 2022).
  4.26    Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of August  19, 2021, by and between Palisade Bio, Inc. and Yuma Regional Medical Center (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on August  24, 2021).
  4.27    Warrant, dated as of August  19, 2021, issued to Yuma Regional Medical Center (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on August 24, 2021).
  4.28    Form of Common Stock Purchase Warrant (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 6, 2022).
  4.29    Form of Placement Agent Warrant (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 6, 2022).
  4.30*    Form of Warrant to Purchase Shares of Common Stock
  4.31*    Form of Warrant Agency Agreement
  4.32*    Form of Lock-Up and Voting Agreement
  5.1    Opinion of Cooley LLP (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 5.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A, filed with the SEC on July 22, 2022).
10.1#    Seneca Biopharma 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Appendix A to the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement, originally filed with the SEC on April 29, 2019).
10.2#    Form of Restricted Option Grant from 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.43 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-232273), originally filed with the SEC on June 21, 2019, originally filed with the SEC on June 21, 2019).


Exhibit
Number
   Description of document
10.3#    License Agreement, by and between Leading BioSciences, Inc. and The Regents of the University of California, dated August  19, 2015, as amended on December 20, 2019 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.18 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File No.  333-251659), originally filed with the SEC on December 23, 2020, as amended).
10.4#    License Agreement, by and between Leading BioSciences, Inc. and The Regents of the University of California, dated April  1, 2020 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.19 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File No.  333-251659), originally filed with the SEC on December 23, 2020, as amended).
10.5#    License Agreement, by and between Palisade Bio, Inc. and The Regents of the University of California, dated July  6, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.5 to the Registrant’s Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on March 17, 2022).
10.6#    Co-Development and Distribution Agreement, by and between Leading BioSciences, Inc. and Newsoara Biopharma Co., Ltd. (as successor-in-interest to Biolead Medical Technology Limited), dated February 17, 2018, as amended on November 27, 2018 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.20 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File No. 333-251659), originally filed with the SEC on December 23, 2020, as amended).
10.7    Form of Seneca Biopharma, Inc. Support Agreement, dated as of December  16, 2020, by and between Leading BioSciences, Inc. and each of the parties named in each agreement therein (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 21, 2020).
10.8    Form of Leading BioSciences, Inc. Support Agreement, dated as of December  16, 2020, by and between Seneca Biopharma, Inc. and each of the parties named in each agreement therein(Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 21, 2020).
10.9†    Securities Purchase Agreement, by and between Leading BioSciences, Inc. and the investor party thereto, dated December  16, 2020 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.5 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 21, 2020).
10.10†    Securities Purchase Agreement, by and among Seneca Biopharma, Inc., Leading BioSciences, Inc. and the investor party thereto, dated December 16, 2020 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.6 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 21, 2020).
10.11    Amendment Agreement to Securities Purchase Agreement by and among, the Company, Leading BioSciences, Inc. and Altium Growth Fund, LP, dated May 3, 2021 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.03 to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, filed with the SEC on May 14, 2021).
10.12    Form of Separation Agreement with Seneca Biopharma, Inc. Executives (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.01 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on March 18, 2021).
10.13†    Contingent Value Rights Agreement, dated as of April 27, 2021, by and among the Company, American Stock Transfer  & Trust Company, LLC and Raul Silvestre (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on April 27, 2021).
10.14+    Form of Indemnification Agreement (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.03 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 18, 2018).


Exhibit
Number
   Description of document
10.15+    Leading BioSciences, Inc. Amended and Restated 2013 Employee, Director and Consultant Equity Incentive Plan and Forms of Stock Option Grant Notice, Stock Option Agreement and Notice of Exercise of Stock Option thereunder (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.24 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File No. 333-251659), originally filed with the SEC on December 23, 2020, as amended).
10.16+    Palisade Bio, Inc. 2021 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.6 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on November 23, 2021).
10.17+    Form of Stock Option Grant Notice, Stock Option Agreement and Notice of Exercise under the Palisade Bio, Inc. 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on November 23, 2021).
10.18+    Form of Non-Employee Director Stock Option Grant Notice, Stock Option Agreement and Notice of Exercise under the Palisade Bio, Inc. 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.5 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on November 23, 2021).
10.19+    Palisade Bio, Inc. Employee Stock Purchase Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.30 to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, filed with the SEC on August 23, 2021).
10.20+    Palisade Bio, Inc. 2021 Inducement Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on November 23, 2021).
10.21+    Form of Restricted Stock Unit Grant Notice and Award Agreement under the Palisade Bio, Inc. 2021 Inducement Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-8 (File No. 333-261196), filed with the SEC on November 19, 2021).
10.22+    Form of Stock Option Grant Notice and Award Agreement under the Palisade Bio, Inc. 2021 Inducement Incentive Plan (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-8 (File No. 333-261196), filed with the SEC on November 19, 2021).
10.23    Non-Employee Director Compensation Policy (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.23 to the Registrant’s Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on March 17, 2022).
10.24+    Amended and Restated Executive Employment Agreement, by and between Leading BioSciences, Inc. and JD Finley, dated January  24, 2021(Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.23 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File No.  333-251659), originally filed with the SEC on December 23, 2020, as amended).
10.25+    Executive Employment Agreement, by and between Leading BioSciences, Inc. and Thomas Hallam, Ph.D., dated December  16, 2020 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.22 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File No.  333-251659), originally filed with the SEC on December 23, 2020, as amended).
10.26+    Executive Employment Agreement, by and between Leading BioSciences, Inc. and Michael Dawson, M.D., dated December  16, 2020 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.21 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File No.  333-251659), originally filed with the SEC on December 23, 2020, as amended).
10.27†    Asset Transfer Agreement, by and between Alto Neuroscience, Inc. and Palisade Bio, Inc., dated October  18, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.27 to the Registrant’s Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on March 17, 2022).
10.28    Office Lease Between AP Beacon Carlsbad, LP, and Palisade Bio, Inc., dated May  12, 2022 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Form 10-Q, filed with the SEC on March 17, 2022).


Exhibit
Number
   Description of document
10.29†    Form of Securities Purchase Agreement, dated May  6, 2022, by and among the Company and the purchasers named therein (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 6, 2022).
10.30    Placement Agency Agreement, dated May 6, 2022, by and between the Company and Ladenburg Thalmann  & Co. Inc. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 6, 2022).
16.1    Letter dated July  8, 2021 from Dixon Hughes Goodman LLP to the Securities and Exchange Commission (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 16.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on July  9, 2021).
21.1    Subsidiaries of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 21.1 to the Registrant’s Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on March 17, 2022).
23.1    Consent of BDO USA LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 23.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A, filed with the SEC on July 22, 2022).
23.2    Consent of Cooley LLP (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 5.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A, filed with the SEC on July 22, 2022).
24.1    Power of Attorney (included in signature page)
107    Filing Fee Table (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 107 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A, filed with the SEC on July 22, 2022).

 

*

Filed herewith.

+

Indicates management contract or compensatory plan.

#

Certain portions of this exhibit (indicated by “[***]”) have been omitted pursuant to Item 601(b)(10)(iv) of Regulation S-K.

Schedules and exhibits to the Agreement have been omitted pursuant to Item 601(a)(5) of Regulation S-K. A copy of any omitted schedule and/or exhibit will be furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission upon request.

(b) Financial Statement Schedules

No financial statement schedules are provided because the information called for is not required or is shown either in the financial statements or related notes, which are incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission


pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser: each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities: The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.


(8) For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.


SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Carlsbad, State of California on August 2, 2022.

 

Palisade Bio, Inc.
By:  

/s/ Thomas M. Hallam, Ph.D.

 

 

  Thomas M. Hallam, Ph.D.

 

  Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

  

Date

/s/ Thomas M. Hallam, Ph.D.    Chief Executive Officer and Director    August 2, 2022
Thomas M. Hallam, Ph.D.    (Principal Executive Officer)   

 

/s/ J. D. Finley    Chief Financial Officer    August 2, 2022
J.D. Finley    (Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)   

 

*    Chairman of the Board of Directors    August 2, 2022
James R. Neal   

 

  

 

*    Director    August 2, 2022
Cristina Csimma, Pharm.D.   

 

  

 

*    Director    August 2, 2022
Stephanie Diaz   

 

  

 

*    Director    August 2, 2022
Mary Ann Gray, Ph.D.   

 

  

 

*    Director    August 2, 2022
Robert J. Trenschel, D.O.   

 

  

 

*    Director    August 2, 2022
Binxian Wei   

 

  

 

*    Director    August 2, 2022
Donald A. Williams   

 

  

 

 

*By:  

/s/ J.D. Finley

  J.D. Finley
  Attorney-in-Fact
EX-1.1

Exhibit 1.1

__________ SHARES OF COMMON STOCK,

_________ SHARES OF SERIES B CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK

(CONVERTIBLE INTO ______ SHARES OF COMMON STOCK) AND

_______ WARRANTS (EXERCISABLE FOR ______ SHARES OF COMMON STOCK)

OF

PALISADE BIO, INC.

UNDERWRITING AGREEMENT

_________, 2022

Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.

As the Representative of the

Several underwriters, if any, named in Schedule I hereto

640 Fifth Avenue, 4th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Ladies and Gentlemen:

The undersigned, Palisade Bio, Inc., Delaware corporation (collectively with its subsidiaries, including, without limitation, all entities disclosed or described in the Registration Statement as being subsidiaries of Palisade Bio, Inc., the “Company”), hereby confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with the several underwriters, if any (such underwriters, including the Representative (as defined below), the “Underwriters” and each an “Underwriter”) named in Schedule I hereto for which Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. is acting as representative to the several Underwriters (the “Representative” and if there are no Underwriters other than the Representative, references to multiple Underwriters shall be disregarded and the term Representative as used herein shall have the same meaning as Underwriter) on the terms and conditions set forth herein.

It is understood that the several Underwriters are to make a public offering of the Public Securities as soon as the Representative deems it advisable to do so. The Public Securities are to be initially offered to the public at the public offering price set forth in the Prospectus. The Representative may from time to time thereafter change the public offering price and other selling terms.

It is further understood that you will act as the Representative for the Underwriters in the offering and sale of the Closing Securities and, if any, the Option Securities in accordance with this Agreement.


ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS

1.1 Definitions. In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Agreement, (a) capitalized terms that are not otherwise defined herein have the meanings given to such terms in the Certificate of Designation (as defined below) and (b) the following terms have the meanings set forth in this Section 1.1:

Action” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(k).

Affiliate” means with respect to any Person, any other Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with such Person as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company.

Business Day” means any day other than Saturday, Sunday or other day on which commercial banks in The City of New York are authorized or required by law to remain closed; provided, however, for clarification, commercial banks shall not be deemed to be authorized or required by law to remain closed due to “stay at home”, “shelter-in-place”, “non-essential employee” or any other similar orders or restrictions or the closure of any physical branch locations at the direction of any governmental authority so long as the electronic funds transfer systems (including for wire transfers) of commercial banks in The City of New York generally are open for use by customers on such day.

Certificate of Designation” means the Certificate of Designation to be filed prior to the Closing by the Company with the Secretary of State of Delaware in the form of Exhibit A attached hereto.

Closing” means the closing of the purchase and sale of the Closing Securities pursuant to Section 2.1.

Closing Date” means the hour and the date on the Trading Day on which all conditions precedent to (i) the Underwriters’ obligations to pay the Closing Purchase Price and (ii) the Company’s obligations to deliver the Closing Securities, in each case, have been satisfied or waived, but in no event later than 12:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the second (2nd) Trading Day following the date hereof or at such earlier time as shall be agreed upon by the Representative and the Company.

Closing Preferred Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(ii).

Closing Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

2


Closing Securities” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(iii).

Closing Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(i).

Closing Warrants” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(iii).

Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.01 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.

Company Auditor” means BDO USA LLP, with offices located at 3570 Carmel Mountain Road, Suite 400, San Diego, California 92130.

Company Counsel” means Cooley LLP, with offices located at 4401 Eastgate Mall, San Diego, California 92121.

Conversion Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in the Certificate of Designation.

Conversion Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in the Certificate of Designation.

Effective Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(f).

EGS” means Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, with offices located at 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10105.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Execution Date” shall mean the date on which the parties execute and enter into this Agreement.

Exempt Issuance” means the issuance of (a) shares of Common Stock, options, or other equity awards to employees, consultants, officers or directors of the Company pursuant to any stock or option plan or other equity incentive plan duly adopted for such purpose by a majority of the non-employee members of the Board of Directors or a majority

 

3


of the members of a committee of non-employee directors established for such purpose for services rendered to the Company; provided, however, the number of shares issued to consultants shall not exceed 300,000 during the restriction period set forth in Section 4.19(a) hereto, (b) securities upon the exercise or exchange of or conversion of any Securities issued hereunder and/or other securities exercisable or exchangeable for or convertible into shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding on the date of this Agreement, provided that such securities have not been amended since the date of this Agreement to increase the number of such securities or to decrease the exercise price, exchange price or conversion price of such securities or to extend the term of such securities, (c) common stock purchase warrants and the warrant shares issuable upon exercise thereof issued to the Representative as compensation for services rendered to Company in connection with the Offering, and (d) securities issued pursuant to acquisitions or strategic transactions approved by a majority of the disinterested directors of the Company, provided that such securities are issued as “restricted securities” (as defined in Rule 144) and carry no registration rights that require or permit the filing of any registration statement in connection therewith within ninety (90) days following the Closing Date, and provided that any such issuance shall only be to a Person (or to the equity holders of a Person) which is, itself or through its subsidiaries, an operating company or an owner of an asset in a business synergistic with the business of the Company and shall provide to the Company additional benefits in addition to the investment of funds, but shall not include a transaction in which the Company is issuing securities primarily for the purpose of raising capital or to an entity whose primary business is investing in securities.

FCPA” means the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended.

FINRA” means the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

GAAP” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(i).

Indebtedness” means (a) any liabilities for borrowed money or amounts owed in excess of $50,000 (other than trade accounts payable incurred in the ordinary course of business), (b) all guaranties, endorsements and other contingent obligations in respect of indebtedness of others, whether or not the same are or should be reflected in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet (or the notes thereto), except guaranties by endorsement of negotiable instruments for deposit or collection or similar transactions in the ordinary course of business; and (c) the present value of any lease payments in excess of $50,000 due under leases required to be capitalized in accordance with GAAP.

Liens” means a lien, charge, pledge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal, preemptive right or other restriction.

Lock-Up Agreements” means the lock-up agreements that are delivered on the date hereof by each of the Company’s officers and directors, in the form of Exhibit H attached hereto.

Material Adverse Effect” means (i) a material adverse effect on the legality,

 

4


validity or enforceability of any Transaction Document, (ii) a material adverse effect on the results of operations, assets, business, or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole or (iii) a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform in any material respect on a timely basis its obligations under any Transaction Document; provided that a change in the market price or trading volume of the Common Stock alone shall not be deemed, in and of itself, to constitute a Material Adverse Effect and adverse effects resulting solely from or relating solely to the following shall be not be taken into account in determining whether there has been a Material Adverse Effect, except, in the case of clauses (a), (b) and (d) below, to the extent the impact of the event described therein has an adverse effect on the Company taken as a whole that is materially disproportionate to the Company taken as a whole compared to other companies operating in the same industry: (a) general economic conditions, or conditions in financial, banking or securities markets; (b) general conditions in the industry or any industry sector in which the Company operates or participates; (c) any natural disaster or any national or international political or social conditions or any act of terrorism, sabotage, military action or war or any escalation or worsening thereof or (d) any changes in applicable laws or governmental regulations or the interpretation thereof.

Offering” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(c).

Option” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2.

Option Closing Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(c).

Option Closing Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.

Option Securities” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a).

Option Shares” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a).

Option Warrants” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a).

Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Preferred Stock” means up to [___] shares of the Company’s Series B Convertible Preferred Stock issued or issuable pursuant to Section 2.1(a)(ii) and having the rights, preferences and privileges set forth in the Certificate of Designation.

Preferred Stock Agency Agreement” means the addendum to the Company’s Transfer Agency and Registrar Services Agreement with the Transfer Agent, pursuant to which the Transfer Agent agrees to act as transfer agent and conversion agent for the Preferred Stock, in the form of Exhibit G attached hereto.

 

5


Preliminary Prospectus” means, if any, any preliminary prospectus relating to the Securities included in the Registration Statement or filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b).

Proceeding” means an action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an informal investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened.

Prospectus” means the final prospectus filed for the Registration Statement.

Prospectus Supplement” means, if any, any supplement to the Prospectus complying with Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act that is filed with the Commission.

Public Securities” means, collectively, the Closing Securities and, if any, the Option Securities.

Registration Statement” means, collectively, the various parts of the registration statement prepared by the Company on Form S-1 (File No. 333-265769) with respect to the Securities, each as amended as of the date hereof, including the Prospectus and Prospectus Supplement, if any, the Preliminary Prospectus, if any, and all exhibits filed with or incorporated by reference into such registration statement, and includes any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement.

Required Approvals” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(e).

Rule 424” means Rule 424 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended or interpreted from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same purpose and effect as such Rule.

Rule 462(b) Registration Statement” means any registration statement prepared by the Company registering additional Public Securities, which was filed with the Commission on or prior to the date hereof and became automatically effective pursuant to Rule 462(b) promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act.

SEC Reports” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(i).

Securities” means the Closing Securities, the Option Securities and the Underlying Shares.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Share Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b).

 

6


Shares” means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(i) and Section 2.2(a).

Subsidiary” means any subsidiary of the Company and shall, where applicable, also include any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company formed or acquired after the date hereof.

Trading Day” means a day on which the principal Trading Market is open for trading.

Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).

Transaction Documents” means this Agreement, the Certificate of Designation, the Warrants, the Warrant Agency Agreement, the Preferred Stock Agency Agreement, the Lock-Up Agreements, the Voting Agreements and any other documents or agreements executed in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder.

Transfer Agent” means American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, the current transfer agent of the Company, with a mailing address of 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219 and an email address of _______________, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.

Underlying Shares” means, collectively, the Conversion Shares and the Warrant Shares.

Voting Agreement” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(d).

Warrant Agency Agreement” means the warrant agency agreement dated on or about the Closing Date, by and between the Company and the Transfer Agent in the form of Exhibit E attached hereto.

Warrant Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b).

Warrant Shares” means the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants.

Warrants” means, collectively, the Common Stock purchase warrants delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(ii) and Section 2.2, which Warrants shall be exercisable upon issuance and have a term of exercise equal to five (5) years, in the form of Exhibit F attached hereto.

 

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ARTICLE II.

PURCHASE AND SALE

2.1 Closing.

(a) Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, the Company agrees to sell in the aggregate [_______] shares of Common Stock, [______] shares of Preferred Stock and [_____] Warrants, and each Underwriter agrees to purchase, severally and not jointly, at the Closing, the following securities of the Company:

(i) the number of shares of Common Stock (the “Closing Shares”) set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof under “Closing Shares”;

(ii) the number of shares of Preferred Stock (the “Closing Preferred Shares”) set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof under “Closing Preferred Shares”; and

(iii) Warrants to purchase up to the number of shares of Common Stock set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof (the “Closing Warrants” and, collectively with the Closing Shares and Closing Preferred Shares, the “Closing Securities”), under “Closing Warrants”, which Warrants shall have a per share exercise price of $[____], subject to adjustment as provided therein.

(b) The aggregate purchase price for the Closing Securities shall equal the amount set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereto (the “Closing Purchase Price”). The combined purchase price for one Share and a Warrant to purchase one Warrant Share shall be $[____] which shall be allocated as $[____] per Share (the “Share Purchase Price”) and $[____] per Warrant (the “Warrant Purchase Price”). The combined purchase price for one Closing Preferred Share and a Warrant to purchase one Warrant Share shall be $[____] which shall be allocated as $[____] per Preferred Share and $[____] per Warrant.

(c) On the Closing Date, each Underwriter shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the Company, via wire transfer, immediately available funds equal to such Underwriter’s Closing Purchase Price and the Company shall deliver to, or as directed by, such Underwriter its respective Closing Securities and the Company shall deliver the other items required pursuant to Section 2.3 deliverable at the Closing. Upon satisfaction of the covenants and conditions set forth in Sections 2.3 and 2.4, the Closing shall occur at the offices of EGS or such other location as the Company and Representative shall mutually agree. The Public Securities are to be offered initially to the public at the offering price set forth on the cover page of the Prospectus (the “Offering”).

(d) On the Closing Date, each Underwriter shall cause certain investors in this Offering to agree to be subject to a lock-up period of three (3) Trading Days following the closing of this Offering and enter into a lock-up and voting agreement, in the form

 

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of Exhibit I (a “Voting Agreement”) attached hereto. This means that, during the applicable lock-up period, such persons may not offer for sale, contract to sell, sell, distribute, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, pledge, hypothecate or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into, or exercisable or exchangeable for, shares of Common Stock. Certain limited transfers are permitted during the lock-up period if the transferee agrees to these lock-up restrictions.

(e) The Company acknowledges and agrees that, with respect to any Notice(s) of Conversion (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) delivered by a Holder (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) on or prior to 10:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date, which Notice(s) of Conversion may be delivered at any time after the time of execution of this Agreement, the Company shall deliver the Conversion Shares (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) subject to such notice(s) to the Holder by 4:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date and the Closing Date shall be the Share Delivery Date (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) under the Certificate of Designation. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Holders are third-party beneficiaries of this covenant of the Company.

(f) The Company further acknowledges and agrees that, with respect to any Notice(s) of Exercise (as defined in the Warrant) delivered by a Holder (as defined in the Warrant) on or prior to 10:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date, which Notice(s) of Exercise may be delivered at any time after the time of execution of this Agreement, the Company shall deliver the Warrant Shares (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) subject to such notice(s) to the Holder by 4:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date and the Closing Date shall be the Share Delivery Date (as defined in the Warrant) under the Warrant. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Holders are third-party beneficiaries of this covenant of the Company.

2.2 Option to Purchase Additional Securities.

(a) For the purposes of covering any over-allotments in connection with the distribution and sale of the Closing Securities, the Representative is hereby granted an option (the “Option”) to purchase, in the aggregate, up to [_____] shares of Common Stock (the “Option Shares”) and Warrants to purchase up to [____] shares of Common Stock (the “Option Warrants” and, collectively with the Option Shares, the “Option Securities”)1 which may be purchased in any combination of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants at the Share Purchase Price and/or Warrant Purchase Price, respectively.

(b) In connection with an exercise of the Option, (a) the purchase price to be paid for the Option Shares is equal to the product of the Share Purchase Price multiplied by the number of Option Shares to be purchased and (b) the purchase price to be paid for the Option Warrants is equal to the product of the Warrant Purchase Price multiplied by the number of Option Warrants to be purchased (the aggregate purchase price to be paid

 

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15% of the Closing Shares and shares of Common Stock underlying the Closing Preferred Shares and the Closing Warrants.

 

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on an Option Closing Date, the “Option Closing Purchase Price”).

(c) The Option granted pursuant to this Section 2.2 may be exercised by the Representative as to all (at any time) or any part (from time to time) of the Option Securities within forty-five (45) days after the Execution Date. An Underwriter will not be under any obligation to purchase any Option Securities prior to the exercise of the Option by the Representative. The Option granted hereby may be exercised by the giving of oral notice to the Company from the Representative, which must be confirmed in writing by overnight mail or electronic transmission setting forth the number of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants to be purchased and the date and time for delivery of and payment for the Option Securities (each, an “Option Closing Date”), which will not be later than two (2) full Business Days after the date of the notice or such other time as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative, at the offices of EGS or at such other place (including remotely by other electronic transmission) as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative. If such delivery and payment for the Option Securities does not occur on the Closing Date, each Option Closing Date will be as set forth in the notice. Upon exercise of the Option, the Company will become obligated to convey to the Underwriters, and, subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein, the Underwriters will become obligated to purchase, the number of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants specified in such notice. The Representative may cancel the Option at any time prior to the expiration of the Option by written notice to the Company.

2.3 Deliveries. The Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to each Underwriter (if applicable) the following:

(i) At the Closing Date, the Closing Shares and, as to each Option Closing Date, if any, the applicable Option Shares, which shares shall be delivered via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;

(ii) At the Closing Date, the Closing Preferred Shares, which shares shall be delivered via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;

(iii) At the Closing Date, the Closing Warrants and, as to each Option Closing Date, if any, the applicable Option Warrants via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;

(iv) At the Closing Date, the Warrant Agency Agreement duly executed by the parties thereto;

(v) At the Closing Date, the Preferred Stock Agency Agreement duly executed by the parties thereto;

(vi) At the Closing Date, and each Option Closing Date, if any, to the Representative only, a Warrant to purchase up to a number of shares of Common Stock

 

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equal to 6.0% of the Closing Shares, Conversion Shares, and Option Shares issued on such Closing Date and Option Closing Date, as applicable, for the account of the Representative (or its designees), which Warrant shall have a per share exercise price of $____, subject to adjustment therein, and registered in the name of the Representative, otherwise on the same terms as the Closing Warrants;

(vii) At the Closing Date, evidence of the filing and acceptance of the Certificate of Designation from the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware;

(viii) At the Closing Date, a legal opinion of Company Counsel addressed to the Underwriters, including, without limitation, a negative assurance letter, substantially in the form of Exhibit D attached hereto and as to the Closing Date and as to each Option Closing Date, if any, a bring-down opinion including, without limitation, a negative assurance letter from Company Counsel in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Representative, including, without limitation, a negative assurance letter, addressed to the Underwriters and in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Representative;

(ix) Contemporaneously herewith, a cold comfort letter, addressed to the Underwriters and in form and substance reasonably satisfactory in all respects to the Representative from the Company Auditor dated, respectively, as of the date of this Agreement and a bring-down letter dated as of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any;

(x) At the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, if any, the duly executed and delivered Officer’s Certificate, substantially in the set forth on Exhibit B attached hereto;

(xi) At the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Secretary’s Certificate, substantially in the form required by Exhibit C attached hereto;

(xii) Contemporaneously herewith, the duly executed and delivered Lock-Up Agreements; and

(xiii) At the Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Voting Agreement.

2.4 Closing Conditions. The respective obligations of each Underwriter hereunder in connection with the Closing and each Option Closing Date are subject to the following conditions being met:

(i) the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the date in question (other than representations and warranties of the Company already qualified by materiality, which shall be true and correct in all respects) of the representations and warranties of the Company contained herein (unless as of a specific date therein);

 

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(ii) all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Company required to be performed at or prior to the date in question shall have been performed;

(iii) the delivery by the Company of the items set forth in Section 2.3 of this Agreement;

(iv) the Registration Statement shall be effective on the date of this Agreement and at each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose shall have been instituted or shall, to the Company’s knowledge, be pending or contemplated by the Commission and any request on the part of the Commission for additional information shall have been complied with to the reasonable satisfaction of the Representative;

(v) by the Execution Date, if required by FINRA, the Underwriters shall have received clearance from FINRA as to the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Underwriters as described in the Registration Statement;

(vi) the Closing Shares, the Option Shares and the Underlying Shares have been approved for listing on the Trading Market; and

(vii) prior to and on each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any: (i) there shall have been no material adverse change or development involving a prospective material adverse change in the condition or the business activities, financial or otherwise, of the Company from the latest dates as of which such condition is set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; (ii) no action suit or proceeding, at law or in equity, shall have been pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened against the Company or any Affiliate of the Company before or by any court or federal or state commission, board or other administrative agency wherein an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding may materially adversely affect the business, operations, or financial condition or income of the Company, except as set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; (iii) no stop order shall have been issued under the Securities Act and no proceedings therefor shall have been initiated or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened by the Commission; and (iv) the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto shall contain all material statements which are required to be stated therein in accordance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and shall conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and neither the Registration Statement nor the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto shall contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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ARTICLE III.

REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES

3.1 Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to the Underwriters as of the Execution Date, as of the Closing Date and as of each Option Closing Date, if any, as follows:

(a) Subsidiaries. All of the direct and indirect Subsidiaries of the Company are set forth in the SEC Reports. The Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the capital stock or other equity interests of each Subsidiary free and clear of any Liens, and all of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of each Subsidiary are validly issued and are fully paid, non-assessable and free of preemptive and similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. If the Company has no Subsidiaries, all other references to the Subsidiaries or any of them in the Transaction Documents shall be disregarded.

(b) Organization and Qualification. The Company and each of the Subsidiaries is an entity duly incorporated or otherwise organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization, with the requisite power and authority to own and use its properties and assets and to carry on its business as currently conducted. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation nor default of any of the provisions of its respective certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries is duly qualified to conduct business and is in good standing as a foreign corporation or other entity in each jurisdiction in which the nature of the business conducted or property owned by it makes such qualification necessary, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect and no Proceeding has been instituted in any such jurisdiction revoking, limiting or curtailing or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail such power and authority or qualification.

(c) Authorization; Enforcement. The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents to which the Company is a party and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder and thereunder. The execution and delivery of this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents by the Company, the filing of the Certificate of Designation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby have been duly authorized by all necessary action on the part of the Company and no further action is required by the Company, the Board of Directors or the Company’s stockholders in connection herewith or therewith other than in connection with the Required Approvals. This Agreement and each other Transaction Document to which the Company is a party has been (or upon delivery or filing will have been) duly executed by the Company and, when delivered in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, will constitute the valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law.

 

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(d) No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement and the other Transaction Documents to which it is a party, the filing of the Certificate of Designation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware, the issuance and sale of the Securities and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby do not and will not (i) conflict with or violate any provision of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents, or (ii) conflict with, or constitute a default (or an event that with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, result in the creation of any Lien upon any of the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary, or give to others any rights of termination, amendment, anti-dilution or similar adjustments, acceleration or cancellation (with or without notice, lapse of time or both) of, any agreement, credit facility, debt or other instrument (evidencing a Company or Subsidiary debt or otherwise) or other understanding to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any property or asset of the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or affected, or (iii) subject to the Required Approvals, conflict with or result in a violation of any law, rule, regulation, order, judgment, injunction, decree or other restriction of any court or governmental authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is subject (including federal and state securities laws and regulations), or by which any property or asset of the Company or a Subsidiary is bound or affected; except in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii), such as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(e) Filings, Consents and Approvals. The Company is not required to obtain any consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other Person in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of the Transaction Documents, other than: (i) the filing with the Commission of the Prospectus, (ii) the filing of the Certificate of Designation with the Delaware Secretary of State; (iii) the application to the Trading Market for the listing of the Shares and the Underlying Shares for trading thereon; (iv) the notices, forms and authorizations of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation related to the account and transfer of the Warrants and (v) such filings as are required to be made under applicable state securities laws (collectively, the “Required Approvals”).

(f) Registration Statement. The Company has filed with the Commission the Registration Statement, including any related Prospectus or Prospectuses, for the registration of the Securities under the Securities Act, which Registration Statement has been prepared by the Company in all material respects in conformity with the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission on _________ __, 2022 (the “Effective Date”). The Company has advised the Representative of all further information (financial and other) with respect to the Company required to be set forth therein in the Registration Statement and Prospectus Supplement. Any reference in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Prospectus Supplement shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein; and any reference in this Agreement to the terms “amend,”

 

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“amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Prospectus Supplement shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act after the date of this Agreement, or the issue date of the Prospectus or the Prospectus Supplement, as the case may be, deemed to be incorporated therein by reference. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information which is “contained,” “included,” “described,” “referenced,” “set forth” or “stated” in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Prospectus Supplement (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Prospectus Supplement, as the case may be. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the use of the Prospectus or the Prospectus Supplement has been issued, and no proceeding for any such purpose is pending or has been initiated or, to the Company’s knowledge, is threatened by the Commission. For purposes of this Agreement, “free writing prospectus” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company will not, without the prior consent of the Representative, prepare, use or refer to, any free writing prospectus.

(g) Issuance of Securities. The Securities are duly authorized, and when issued and paid for in accordance with the applicable Transaction Documents, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company and as may be contemplated by the Voting Agreements. The Underlying Shares, when issued in accordance with the terms of the Transaction Documents, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. The Company has reserved from its duly authorized capital stock the maximum number of shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to this Agreement and the Warrants. The holder of the Securities will not be subject to personal liability by reason of being such holders. The Securities are not and will not be subject to the preemptive rights of any holders of any security of the Company or similar contractual rights granted by the Company. All corporate action required to be taken for the authorization, issuance and sale of the Securities has been duly and validly taken. The Securities conform in all material respects to all statements with respect thereto contained in the Registration Statement.

(h) Capitalization. The capitalization of the Company is as set forth in the SEC Reports. The Company has not issued any capital stock since its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act, other than pursuant to the exercise of employee stock options under the Company’s equity incentive plans, the issuance of shares of Common Stock to employees pursuant to the Company’s employee stock purchase plans and pursuant to the conversion and/or exercise of Common Stock Equivalents outstanding as of the date of the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act. No Person has any right of first refusal, preemptive right, right of participation, or any similar right to participate in the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. Except as a result of the purchase and sale of the Securities, or as set forth in the SEC Reports, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, there are no outstanding options, warrants, scrip rights to subscribe to, calls or commitments of any character whatsoever relating to, or securities, rights or obligations convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or

 

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giving any Person any right to subscribe for or acquire, any shares of Common Stock or the capital stock of any Subsidiary, or contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company or any Subsidiary is or may become bound to issue additional shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents or the capital stock of any Subsidiary. The issuance and sale of the Securities will not obligate the Company or any Subsidiary to issue shares of Common Stock or other securities to any Person (other than the Underwriters). Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, there are no outstanding securities or instruments of the Company or any Subsidiary with any provision that adjusts the exercise, conversion, exchange or reset price of such security or instrument upon an issuance of securities by the Company or any Subsidiary. There are no outstanding securities or instruments of the Company or any Subsidiary that contain any redemption or similar provisions, and there are no contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company or any Subsidiary is or may become bound to redeem a security of the Company or such Subsidiary. The Company does not have any stock appreciation rights or “phantom stock” plans or agreements or any similar plan or agreement. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, have been issued in compliance with all federal and state securities laws, and none of such outstanding shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. The authorized shares of the Company conform in all material respects to all statements relating thereto contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The offers and sales of the Company’s securities were at all relevant times either registered under the Securities Act and the applicable state securities or Blue Sky laws or, based in part on the representations and warranties of the purchasers, exempt from such registration requirements. No further approval or authorization of any stockholder, the Board of Directors or others is required for the issuance and sale of the Securities. Except for the Transaction Documents and except as set forth in the SEC Reports, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, there are no stockholders agreements, voting agreements or other similar agreements with respect to the Company’s capital stock to which the Company is a party or, to the knowledge of the Company, between or among any of the Company’s stockholders.

(i) SEC Reports; Financial Statements. The Company has filed all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by the Company under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof, for the two years preceding the date hereof (or such shorter period as the Company was required by law or regulation to file such material) (the foregoing materials, including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein, together with the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, being collectively referred to herein as the “SEC Reports”) on a timely basis or has received a valid extension of such time of filing and has filed any such SEC Reports prior to the expiration of any such extension. As of their respective dates, the SEC Reports complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and none of the SEC Reports, when filed, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the

 

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statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The financial statements of the Company included in the SEC Reports comply in all material respects with applicable accounting requirements and the rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto as in effect at the time of filing. Such financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved (“GAAP”), except as may be otherwise specified in such financial statements or the notes thereto and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain all footnotes required by GAAP, and fairly present in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries as of and for the dates thereof and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods then ended, subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal, immaterial, year-end audit adjustments. The agreements and documents described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement and the SEC Reports conform to the descriptions thereof contained therein and there are no agreements or other documents required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder to be described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the SEC Reports or to be filed with the Commission as exhibits to the Registration Statement, that have not been so described or filed. Each agreement or other instrument (however characterized or described) to which the Company is a party or by which it is or may be bound or affected and (i) that is referred to in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the SEC Reports, or (ii) is material to the Company’s business, has been duly authorized and validly executed by the Company, is in full force and effect in all material respects and is enforceable against the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, the other parties thereto, in accordance with its terms, except (x) as such enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, (y) as enforceability of any indemnification or contribution provision may be limited under the federal and state securities laws, and (z) that the remedy of specific performance and injunctive and other forms of equitable relief may be subject to the equitable defenses and to the discretion of the court before which any proceeding therefore may be brought. None of such agreements or instruments has been assigned by the Company, and neither the Company nor, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, any other party is in default thereunder and, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, no event has occurred that, with the lapse of time or the giving of notice, or both, would constitute a default thereunder. To the best of the Company’s knowledge, performance by the Company of the material provisions of such agreements or instruments will not result in a violation of any existing applicable law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any governmental agency or court, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its assets or businesses, including, without limitation, those relating to environmental laws and regulations.

(j) Material Changes; Undisclosed Events, Liabilities or Developments. Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, except as specifically disclosed in a subsequent SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, (i) there has been no event, occurrence or development that has had or that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) the Company has not incurred any

 

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material liabilities (contingent or otherwise) other than (A) trade payables and accrued expenses incurred in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practice and (B) liabilities not required to be reflected in the Company’s financial statements pursuant to GAAP or disclosed in filings made with the Commission, (iii) the Company has not altered its method of accounting, (iv) the Company has not declared or made any dividend or distribution of cash or other property to its stockholders or purchased, redeemed or made any agreements to purchase or redeem any shares of its capital stock, (v) the Company has not issued any equity securities to any officer, director or Affiliate, except pursuant to existing Company stock option plans and (vi) no officer or director of the Company has resigned from any position with the Company. The Company does not have pending before the Commission any request for confidential treatment of information. Except for the issuance of the Securities contemplated by this Agreement, no event, liability, fact, circumstance, occurrence or development has occurred or exists or is reasonably expected to occur or exist with respect to the Company or its Subsidiaries or their respective businesses, properties, operations, assets or financial condition that would be required to be disclosed by the Company under applicable securities laws at the time this representation is made or deemed made that has not been publicly disclosed at least 1 Trading Day prior to the date that this representation is made. Unless otherwise disclosed in an SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, the Company has not: (i) issued any securities or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, for borrowed money; or (ii) declared or paid any dividend or made any other distribution on or in respect to its capital stock.

(k) Litigation. There is no action, suit, inquiry, notice of violation, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company, any Subsidiary or any of their respective properties before or by any court, arbitrator, governmental or administrative agency or regulatory authority (federal, state, county, local or foreign) (collectively, an “Action”) which (i) adversely affects or challenges the legality, validity or enforceability of any of the Transaction Documents or the Securities or (ii) could, if there were an unfavorable decision, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any current director or officer thereof, is or has been the subject of any Action involving a claim of violation of or liability under federal or state securities laws or a claim of breach of fiduciary duty. There has not been, and to the knowledge of the Company, there is not pending or contemplated, any investigation by the Commission involving the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any current or former director or officer of the Company. The Commission has not issued any stop order or other order suspending the effectiveness of any registration statement filed by the Company or any Subsidiary under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act.

(l) Labor Relations. No labor dispute exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent with respect to any of the employees of the Company, which could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ employees is a member of a union that relates to such employee’s relationship with the Company or such Subsidiary, and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to a collective bargaining agreement, and the Company and its

 

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Subsidiaries believe that their relationships with their employees are good. To the knowledge of the Company, no executive officer of the Company or any Subsidiary, is, or is now expected to be, in violation of any material term of any employment contract, confidentiality, disclosure or proprietary information agreement or non-competition agreement, or any other contract or agreement or any restrictive covenant in favor of any third party, and the continued employment of each such executive officer does not subject the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to any liability with respect to any of the foregoing matters. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to employment and employment practices, terms and conditions of employment and wages and hours, except where the failure to be in compliance could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(m) Compliance. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary: (i) is in default under or in violation of (and no event has occurred that has not been waived that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would result in a default by the Company or any Subsidiary under), nor has the Company or any Subsidiary received notice of a claim that it is in default under or that it is in violation of, any indenture, loan or credit agreement or any other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties is bound (whether or not such default or violation has been waived), (ii) is in violation of any judgment, decree or order of any court, arbitrator or other governmental authority or (iii) is or has been in violation of any statute, rule, ordinance or regulation of any governmental authority, including without limitation all foreign, federal, state and local laws relating to taxes, environmental protection, occupational health and safety, product quality and safety and employment and labor matters, except in each case as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(n) Regulatory Permits. The Company and the Subsidiaries possess all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports, except where the failure to possess such permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (each, a “Material Permit”), and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Material Permit. The disclosures in the Registration Statement concerning the effects of Federal, State, local and all foreign regulation on the Company’s business as currently contemplated are correct in all material respects.

(o) Title to Assets. The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to, or have valid and marketable rights to lease or otherwise use, all real property and all personal property that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all Liens, except for (i) Liens as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries and (ii) Liens for the payment of federal, state or other taxes, for which appropriate reserves have been made therefor in accordance with GAAP, and the payment of which is neither delinquent nor subject to penalties. Any real property and facilities held

 

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under lease by the Company and the Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with which the Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance, except where failure to be in compliance could not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(p) Intellectual Property. To the Company’s knowledge, the Company and the Subsidiaries have, or have rights to use, all patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark applications, service marks, trade names, trade secrets, inventions, copyrights, licenses and other intellectual property rights and similar rights necessary or required for use in connection with their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports and which the failure to do so could have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, the “Intellectual Property Rights”). None of, and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received a written or, to the Company’s knowledge, oral notice that any of, the Intellectual Property Rights has expired, terminated or been abandoned, or is expected to expire or terminate or be abandoned, within two (2) years from the date of this Agreement. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, a written notice of a claim or otherwise has any knowledge that the Intellectual Property Rights violate or infringe upon the rights of any Person except as could not have or reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. To the knowledge of the Company, all such Intellectual Property Rights are enforceable and there is no existing infringement by another Person of any of the Intellectual Property Rights. The Company and its Subsidiaries have taken reasonable security measures to protect the secrecy, confidentiality and value of all of their intellectual properties, except where failure to do so could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(q) Insurance. The Company and the Subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary in the businesses in which the Company and the Subsidiaries are engaged, including, but not limited to, directors and officers insurance coverage. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business without a significant increase in cost.

(r) Transactions With Affiliates and Employees. Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, none of the officers or directors of the Company or any Subsidiary and, to the knowledge of the Company, none of the employees of the Company or any Subsidiary is presently a party to any transaction with the Company or any Subsidiary (other than for services as employees, officers and directors), including any contract, agreement or other arrangement providing for the furnishing of services to or by, providing for rental of real or personal property to or from, providing for the borrowing of money from or lending of money to or otherwise requiring payments to or from, any officer, director or such employee or, to the knowledge of the Company, any entity in which any officer, director, or any such employee has a substantial interest or is an officer, director, trustee, stockholder, member or partner, in each case in excess of $120,000 other than for (i)

 

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payment of salary or consulting fees for services rendered, (ii) reimbursement for expenses incurred on behalf of the Company and (iii) other employee benefits, including stock option agreements under any equity incentive plan of the Company.

(s) Sarbanes-Oxley; Internal Accounting Controls. The Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance in all material respects with any and all applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 that are effective as of the date hereof, and any and all applicable rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder that are effective as of the date hereof and as of the Closing Date. Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, the Company and the Subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company and the Subsidiaries have established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) for the Company and the Subsidiaries and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures of the Company and the Subsidiaries as of the end of the period covered by the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no changes in the internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in the Exchange Act) of the Company and its Subsidiaries that have materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the internal control over financial reporting of the Company and its Subsidiaries.

(t) Certain Fees. Except as set forth in the Prospectus, no brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company, any Subsidiary or Affiliate of the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other Person with respect to the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. To the Company’s knowledge, there are no other arrangements, agreements or understandings of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its stockholders that may affect the Underwriters’ compensation, as determined by FINRA. The Company has not made any direct or indirect payments (in cash, securities or otherwise) to: (i) any person, as a finder’s fee, consulting fee or otherwise, in consideration of such person raising capital for the Company or introducing to the Company persons who raised or provided capital to the Company; (ii) any FINRA member; or (iii) any person or entity that has any direct or indirect affiliation or association

 

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with any FINRA member, within the twelve months prior to the Execution Date. None of the net proceeds of the Offering will be paid by the Company to any participating FINRA member or its affiliates, except as specifically authorized herein.

(u) Investment Company. The Company is not, and is not an Affiliate of, and immediately after receipt of payment for the Securities will not be or be an Affiliate of, an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The Company shall conduct its business in a manner so that it will not become an “investment company” subject to registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(v) Registration Rights. No Person has any right to cause the Company or any Subsidiary to effect the registration under the Securities Act of any securities of the Company or any Subsidiary.

(w) Listing and Maintenance Requirements. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or which to its knowledge is likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission is contemplating terminating such registration. Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, the Company has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from any Trading Market on which the Common Stock is or has been listed or quoted to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of such Trading Market. The Company is, and has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future continue to be, in compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements. The Common Stock is currently eligible for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation and the Company is current in payment of the fees of the Depository Trust Company (or such other established clearing corporation) in connection with such electronic transfer.

(x) Application of Takeover Protections. The Company and the Board of Directors have taken all necessary action, if any, in order to render inapplicable any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or other similar anti-takeover provision under the Company’s certificate of incorporation (or similar charter documents) or the laws of its state of incorporation that is or could become applicable as a result of the Underwriters and the Company fulfilling their obligations or exercising their rights under the Transaction Documents.

(y) Disclosure; 10b-5. The Registration Statement contains all exhibits and schedules as required by the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, if any, at the time it became effective, complied in all material respects with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations under the Securities Act and did not and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not

 

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misleading. The Preliminary Prospectus, Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, each as of its respective date, comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations. Each of the Preliminary Prospectus, Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, as amended or supplemented, did not and will not contain as of the date thereof any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The SEC Reports, when they were filed with the Commission, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations, and none of such documents, when they were filed with the Commission, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein (with respect to the SEC Reports incorporated by reference in the Preliminary Prospectus, Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement), in light of the circumstances under which they were made not misleading; and any further documents so filed and incorporated by reference in the Preliminary Prospectus, Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement, when such documents are filed with the Commission, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations, as applicable, and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made not misleading. No post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement reflecting any facts or events arising after the date thereof which represent, individually or in the aggregate, a fundamental change in the information set forth therein is required to be filed with the Commission. Notwithstanding any of the foregoing, the Company makes no representation or warranty with respect to any underwriter information provided for use in the Registration Statement, the Preliminary Prospectus or the Prospectus, which shall be limited to the information in the section titled ”Underwriting” in the Registration Statement with respect to the selling concession and the information in the subsection of the the Underwriting section with respect to “Stabilization, Short Positions and Penalty Bids.” There are no documents required to be filed with the Commission in connection with the transaction contemplated hereby that (x) have not been filed as required pursuant to the Securities Act or (y) will not be filed within the requisite time period. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Preliminary Prospectus, Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement, or to be filed as exhibits or schedules to the Registration Statement, which have not been described or filed as required. The press releases disseminated by the Company during the twelve months preceding the date of this Agreement taken as a whole do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made and when made, not misleading.

(z) No Integrated Offering. Neither the Company, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its Affiliates, nor any Person acting on its or their behalf has, directly or indirectly, made any offers or sales of any security or solicited any offers to buy any security, under circumstances that would cause this offering of the Securities to be integrated with prior offerings by the Company for purposes of any applicable shareholder

 

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approval provisions of any Trading Market on which any of the securities of the Company are listed or designated.

(aa) Solvency. Based on the consolidated financial condition of the Company as of the Closing Date, after giving effect to the receipt by the Company of the proceeds from the sale of the Securities hereunder, (i) the fair saleable value of the Company’s assets exceeds the amount that will be required to be paid on or in respect of the Company’s existing debts and other liabilities (including known contingent liabilities) as they mature, (ii) the Company’s assets do not constitute unreasonably small capital to carry on its business as now conducted and as proposed to be conducted including its capital needs taking into account the particular capital requirements of the business conducted by the Company, consolidated and projected capital requirements and capital availability thereof, and (iii) the current cash flow of the Company, together with the proceeds the Company would receive, were it to liquidate all of its assets, after taking into account all anticipated uses of the cash, would be sufficient to pay all amounts on or in respect of its liabilities when such amounts are required to be paid. The Company does not intend to incur debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature (taking into account the timing and amounts of cash to be payable on or in respect of its debt). The Company has no knowledge of any facts or circumstances which lead it to believe that it will file for reorganization or liquidation under the bankruptcy or reorganization laws of any jurisdiction within one year from the Closing Date. The SEC Reports sets forth as of the date hereof all outstanding secured and unsecured Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary, or for which the Company or any Subsidiary has commitments. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in default with respect to any Indebtedness.

(bb) Tax Status. Except for matters that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its Subsidiaries each (i) has made or filed all United States federal, state and local income and all foreign income and franchise tax returns, reports and declarations required by any jurisdiction to which it is subject, (ii) has paid all taxes and other governmental assessments and charges that are material in amount, shown or determined to be due on such returns, reports and declarations and (iii) has set aside on its books provision reasonably adequate for the payment of all material taxes for periods subsequent to the periods to which such returns, reports or declarations apply. There are no unpaid taxes in any material amount claimed to be due by the taxing authority of any jurisdiction, and the officers of the Company or of any Subsidiary know of no basis for any such claim. The provisions for taxes payable, if any, shown on the financial statements filed with or as part of the Registration Statement are sufficient for all accrued and unpaid taxes, whether or not disputed, and for all periods to and including the dates of such consolidated financial statements. The term “taxes” mean all federal, state, local, foreign, and other net income, gross income, gross receipts, sales, use, ad valorem, transfer, franchise, profits, license, lease, service, service use, withholding, payroll, employment, excise, severance, stamp, occupation, premium, property, windfall profits, customs, duties or other taxes, fees, assessments, or charges of any kind whatsoever, together with any interest and any penalties, additions to tax, or additional amounts with respect thereto. The term “returns”

 

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means all returns, declarations, reports, statements, and other documents required to be filed in respect to taxes.

(cc) Foreign Corrupt Practices. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor to the knowledge of the Company or any Subsidiary, any agent or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary, has (i) directly or indirectly, used any funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses related to foreign or domestic political activity, (ii) made any unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees or to any foreign or domestic political parties or campaigns from corporate funds, (iii) failed to disclose fully any contribution made by the Company or any Subsidiary (or made by any person acting on its behalf of which the Company is aware) which is in violation of law, or (iv) violated in any material respect any provision of FCPA. The Company has taken reasonable steps to ensure that its accounting controls and procedures are sufficient to cause the Company to comply in all material respects with the FCPA.

(dd) Accountants. To the knowledge and belief of the Company, the Company Auditor (i) is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Exchange Act and (ii) shall express its opinion with respect to the financial statements to be included in the Company’s Annual Report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2022. The Company Auditor has not, during the periods covered by the financial statements included in the Prospectus, provided to the Company any non-audit services, as such term is used in Section 10A(g) of the Exchange Act.

(ee) FDA. As to each product subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended, and the regulations thereunder (“FDCA”) that is manufactured, packaged, labeled, tested, distributed, sold, and/or marketed by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (each such product, a “Pharmaceutical Product”), such Pharmaceutical Product is being manufactured, packaged, labeled, tested, distributed, sold and/or marketed by the Company in compliance with all applicable requirements under FDCA and similar laws, rules and regulations relating to registration, investigational use, premarket clearance, licensure, or application approval, good manufacturing practices, good laboratory practices, good clinical practices, product listing, quotas, labeling, advertising, record keeping and filing of reports, except where the failure to be in compliance would not have a Material Adverse Effect. There is no pending, completed or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened, action (including any lawsuit, arbitration, or legal or administrative or regulatory proceeding, charge, complaint, or investigation) against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, and none of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries has received any notice, warning letter or other communication from the FDA or any other governmental entity, which (i) contests the premarket clearance, licensure, registration, or approval of, the uses of, the distribution of, the manufacturing or packaging of, the testing of, the sale of, or the labeling and promotion of any Pharmaceutical Product, (ii) withdraws its approval of, requests the recall, suspension, or seizure of, or withdraws or orders the withdrawal of advertising or sales promotional materials relating to, any Pharmaceutical Product, (iii) imposes a clinical hold on any clinical investigation by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, (iv) enjoins

 

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production at any facility of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, (v) enters or proposes to enter into a consent decree of permanent injunction with the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or (vi) otherwise alleges any violation of any laws, rules or regulations by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, and which, either individually or in the aggregate, would have a Material Adverse Effect. The properties, business and operations of the Company have been and are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations of the FDA. The Company has not been informed by the FDA that the FDA will prohibit the marketing, sale, license or use in the United States of any product proposed to be developed, produced or marketed by the Company nor has the FDA expressed any concern as to approving or clearing for marketing any product being developed or proposed to be developed by the Company.

(ff) Stock Option Plans. Each stock option granted by the Company under the Company’s equity incentive plan was granted (i) in accordance with the terms of the Company’s equity incentive plan and (ii) with an exercise price at least equal to the fair market value of the Common Stock on the date such stock option would be considered granted under GAAP and applicable law. No stock option granted under the Company’s stock option plan has been backdated. The Company has not knowingly granted, and there is no and has been no Company policy or practice to knowingly grant, stock options prior to, or otherwise knowingly coordinate the grant of stock options with, the release or other public announcement of material information regarding the Company or its Subsidiaries or their financial results or prospects.

(gg) Office of Foreign Assets Control. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any Subsidiary is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department.

(hh) U.S. Real Property Holding Corporation. The Company is not and has never been a U.S. real property holding corporation within the meaning of Section 897 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Company shall so certify upon the Representative’s request.

(ii) Bank Holding Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates is subject to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”) and to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates owns or controls, directly or indirectly, five percent (5%) or more of the outstanding shares of any class of voting securities or twenty-five percent (25%) or more of the total equity of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates exercises a controlling influence over the management or policies of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve.

(jj) Money Laundering. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance in all material respects with applicable

 

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financial record-keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, applicable money laundering statutes and applicable rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”), and no Action or Proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any Subsidiary with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company or any Subsidiary, threatened.

(kk) D&O Questionnaires. To the Company’s knowledge, all information contained in the questionnaires completed by each of the Company’s directors and officers immediately prior to the Offering and in the Lock-Up Agreement provided to the Underwriters is true and correct in all respects and the Company has not become aware of any information which would cause the information disclosed in such questionnaires become inaccurate and incorrect.

(ll) FINRA Affiliation. To the Company’s knowledge, no officer, director or any beneficial owner of 5% or more of the Company’s unregistered securities has any direct or indirect affiliation or association with any FINRA member (as determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of FINRA) that is participating in the Offering. The Company will advise the Representative and EGS if it learns that any officer, director or owner of 5% or more of the Company’s outstanding shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents is or becomes an affiliate or associated person of a FINRA member firm.

(mm) Officers’ Certificate. Any certificate signed by any duly authorized officer of the Company and delivered to the Representative or EGS shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Underwriters as to the matters covered thereby.

(nn) Board of Directors. The Board of Directors is comprised of James R. Neal; Thomas Hallam, Ph.D.; Stephanie C. Diaz; Donald A. Williams; Mary Ann Gray Ph.D.; Cristina Csimma, Pharm.D., MHP; Robert J. Trenschel, D.O.; and Binxian Wei. The qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder applicable to the Company and the rules of the Trading Market. At least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and the rules of the Trading Market. In addition, at least a majority of the persons serving on the Board of Directors qualify as “independent” as defined under the rules of the Trading Market.

(oo) Cybersecurity. (i)(x) To the Company’s knowledge, there has been no security breach or other compromise of or relating to any of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data (including the data of its respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of it), equipment or technology (collectively, “IT Systems and Data”) and (y) the Company and the Subsidiaries have not been notified

 

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of, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in, any security breach or other compromise to its IT Systems and Data; (ii) the Company and the Subsidiaries are presently in compliance in all material respects with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification, except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; (iii) the Company and the Subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable safeguards to maintain and protect its material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and Data; and (iv) the Company and the Subsidiaries have implemented backup and disaster recovery technology consistent with industry standards and practices.

(pp) Environmental Laws. The Company and its Subsidiaries (i) are in compliance with all federal, state, local and foreign laws relating to pollution or protection of human health or the environment (including ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata), including laws relating to emissions, discharges, releases or threatened releases of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, or toxic or hazardous substances or wastes (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) into the environment, or otherwise relating to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials, as well as all authorizations, codes, decrees, demands, or demand letters, injunctions, judgments, licenses, notices or notice letters, orders, permits, plans or regulations, issued, entered, promulgated or approved thereunder (“Environmental Laws”); (ii) have received all permits licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses; and (iii) are in compliance with all terms and conditions of any such permit, license or approval where in each clause (i), (ii) and (iii), the failure to so comply could be reasonably expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

ARTICLE IV.

OTHER AGREEMENTS OF THE PARTIES

4.1 Amendments to Registration Statement. The Company has delivered, or will as promptly as practicable deliver, to the Underwriters complete conformed copies of the Registration Statement and of each consent and certificate of experts, as applicable, filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits), the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as an Underwriter reasonably requests. Neither the Company nor any of its directors and officers has distributed and none of them will distribute, prior to the Closing Date, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Securities other than the Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, the Registration Statement, and copies of the documents incorporated by reference therein. The Company shall not file any such amendment or supplement to which the Representative shall reasonably object in writing.

 

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4.2 Federal Securities Laws.

(a) Compliance. During the time when a Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of or dealings in the Securities in accordance with the provisions hereof and the Prospectus. If at any time when a Prospectus relating to the Securities is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, any event shall have occurred as a result of which, in the opinion of counsel for the Company or counsel for the Underwriters, the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, includes an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, or if it is necessary at any time to amend the Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will notify the Underwriters promptly and prepare and file with the Commission, subject to Section 4.1 hereof, an appropriate amendment or supplement in accordance with Section 10 of the Securities Act.

(b) Filing of Final Prospectus. The Company will file the Prospectus (in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Representative) with the Commission pursuant to the requirements of Rule 424.

(c) Exchange Act Registration. For a period of three years from the Execution Date, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to maintain the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act. The Company will not deregister the Common Stock under the Exchange Act without the prior written consent of the Representative.

(d) Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents and agrees that it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Securities that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433 of the rules and regulations under the Securities Act, without the prior written consent of the Representative. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Representative is herein referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus” as defined in rule and regulations under the Securities Act, and has complied and will comply with the applicable requirements of Rule 433 of the Securities Act, including timely Commission filing where required, legending and record keeping.

4.3 Delivery to the Underwriters of Prospectuses. The Company will deliver to the Underwriters, without charge, from time to time during the period when the Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act such number of copies of each Prospectus as the Underwriters may reasonably request and, as soon as the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement thereto becomes effective, deliver to you two original executed Registration Statements, including exhibits, and all post-effective amendments thereto and copies

 

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of all exhibits filed therewith or incorporated therein by reference and all original executed consents of certified experts.

4.4 Effectiveness and Events Requiring Notice to the Underwriters. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Registration Statement to remain effective with a current prospectus until the later of nine (9) months from the Execution Date and the date on which the Warrants are no longer outstanding, and will notify the Underwriters and holders of the Warrants promptly and confirm the notice in writing: (i) of the effectiveness of the Registration Statement and any amendment thereto; (ii) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iii) of the issuance by any state securities commission of any proceedings for the suspension of the qualification of the Securities for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iv) of the mailing and delivery to the Commission for filing of any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus; (v) of the receipt of any comments or request for any additional information from the Commission; and (vi) of the happening of any event during the period described in this Section 4.4 that, in the judgment of the Company, makes any statement of a material fact made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus untrue or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. If the Commission or any state securities commission shall enter a stop order or suspend such qualification at any time, the Company will make every reasonable effort to obtain promptly the lifting of such order.

4.5 Expenses of the Offering.

(a) General Expenses Related to the Offering. The Company hereby agrees to pay on each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any, to the extent not paid at the Closing Date, all expenses incident to the performance of the obligations of the Company under this Agreement, including, but not limited to: (a) all filing fees and communication expenses relating to the registration of the Securities to be sold in the Offering (including the Option Securities) with the Commission; (b) all FINRA Public Offering Filing System fees associated with the review of the Offering by FINRA; (c) all fees and expenses relating to the listing of such Closing Shares, Option Shares and Underlying Shares on the Trading Market and such other stock exchanges as the Company and the Representative together determine; (d) all fees, expenses and disbursements relating to the registration or qualification of such Securities under the “blue sky” securities laws of such states and other foreign jurisdictions as the Representative may reasonably designate (including, without limitation, all filing and registration fees, and the fees and expenses of Blue Sky counsel); (e) the costs of all mailing and printing of the underwriting documents (including, without limitation, the Underwriting Agreement, any Blue Sky Surveys and, if appropriate, any Agreement Among Underwriters, Selected Dealers’ Agreement, Underwriters’ Questionnaire and Power of Attorney), Registration Statements, Prospectuses and all amendments, supplements and exhibits thereto and as many preliminary and final Prospectuses as the Representative may reasonably deem necessary; (f) the costs and expenses of the Company’s public relations firm; (g) the costs of preparing,

 

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printing and delivering the Securities; (h) fees and expenses of the Transfer Agent for the Securities (including, without limitation, any fees required for same-day processing of any instruction letter delivered by the Company and fees and expenses pursuant to the Warrant Agency Agreement and the Preferred Stock Agency Agreement); (i) stock transfer and/or stamp taxes, if any, payable upon the transfer of securities from the Company to the Underwriters; (j) the fees and expenses of the Company’s accountants; (k) the fees and expenses of the Company’s legal counsel and other agents and representatives; (l) the Underwriters’ costs of mailing prospectuses to prospective investors; and (m) the costs associated with advertising the Offering in the national editions of the Wall Street Journal and New York Times after the Closing Date. The Underwriters may also deduct from the net proceeds of the Offering payable to the Company on the Closing Date, or each Option Closing Date, if any, the expenses set forth herein to be paid by the Company to the Underwriters.

(b) Expenses of the Representative. The Company further agrees that, in addition to the expenses payable pursuant to Section 4.5(a), on the Closing Date it will pay to the Representative all reasonable and documented, out-of-pocket expenses incurred, including travel, databases, fees and disbursements of legal counsel, and of other consultants and advisors not to exceed $105,000 in the aggregate without the Company’s prior consent by deduction from the proceeds of the Offering contemplated herein.

4.6 Application of Net Proceeds. The Company will apply the net proceeds from the Offering received by it in a manner consistent with the application described under the caption “Use of Proceeds” in the Prospectus.

4.7 Delivery of Earnings Statements to Security Holders. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but not later than 90 days after the completion of a full fiscal year of the Company following the Execution Date, an earnings statement (which need not be certified by independent public or independent certified public accountants unless required by the Securities Act or the Rules and Regulations under the Securities Act, but which shall satisfy the provisions of Rule 158(a) under Section 11(a) of the Securities Act) covering a period of at least twelve consecutive months beginning after the Execution Date.

4.8 Stabilization. Neither the Company, nor, to its knowledge, any of its employees, directors or shareholders (without the consent of the Representative) has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that has constituted or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act, or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Securities.

4.9 Internal Controls. The Company will maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurances that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary in order to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is

 

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compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.

4.10 Accountants. The Company shall continue to retain a nationally recognized independent certified public accounting firm for a period of at least three years after the Execution Date. The Underwriters acknowledge that the Company Auditor is acceptable to the Underwriters.

4.11 FINRA. The Company shall advise the Underwriters (who shall make an appropriate filing with FINRA) if it is aware that any 5% or greater shareholder of the Company becomes an affiliate or associated person of an Underwriter.

4.12 No Fiduciary Duties. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Underwriters’ responsibility to the Company is solely contractual and commercial in nature, based on arms-length negotiations and that neither the Underwriters nor their affiliates or any selected dealer shall be deemed to be acting in a fiduciary capacity, or otherwise owes any fiduciary duty to the Company or any of its affiliates in connection with the Offering and the other transactions contemplated by this Agreement. Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the contrary, the Company acknowledges that the Underwriters may have financial interests in the success of the Offering that are not limited to the difference between the price to the public and the purchase price paid to the Company by the Underwriters for the shares and the Underwriters have no obligation to disclose, or account to the Company for, any of such additional financial interests. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against the Underwriters with respect to any breach or alleged breach of fiduciary duty.

4.13 Underlying Shares. If all or any portion of a Warrant is exercised at a time when there is an effective registration statement to cover the issuance of the Warrant Shares or if the Warrant is exercised via cashless exercise at a time when such Warrant Shares would be eligible for resale under Rule 144 by a non-affiliate of the Company, the Warrant Shares issued pursuant to any such exercise shall be issued free of all restrictive legends. If at any time following the date hereof the Registration Statement (or any subsequent registration statement registering the sale or resale of the Warrant Shares) is not effective or is not otherwise available for the sale of the Warrant Shares, the Company shall promptly notify the holders of the Warrants in writing that such registration statement is not then effective and thereafter shall promptly notify such holders when the registration statement is effective again and available for the sale of the Warrant Shares (it being understood and agreed that the foregoing shall not limit the ability of the Company to issue, or any holder thereof to sell, any of the Warrant Shares in compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws).

4.14 Board Composition and Board Designations. The Company shall ensure that: (i) the qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and with the listing requirements of the Trading Market and (ii) if applicable, at least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder.

 

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4.15 Securities Laws Disclosure; Publicity. At the request of the Representative, by [9:00 a.m.] (New York City time) on the date hereof, the Company shall issue a press release disclosing the material terms of the Offering. The Company and the Representative shall consult with each other in issuing any other press releases with respect to the Offering, and neither the Company nor any Underwriter shall issue any such press release nor otherwise make any such public statement without the prior consent of the Company, with respect to any press release of such Underwriter, or without the prior consent of such Underwriter, with respect to any press release of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be withheld or delayed, except if such disclosure is required by law, in which case the disclosing party shall promptly provide the other party with prior notice of such public statement or communication. The Company will not issue press releases or engage in any other publicity, without the Representative’s prior written consent, for a period ending at 5:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the first business day following the 45th day following the Closing Date, other than normal and customary releases issued in the ordinary course of the Company’s business.

4.16 Shareholder Rights Plan. No claim will be made or enforced by the Company or, with the consent of the Company, any other Person, that any Underwriter of the Securities is an “Acquiring Person” under any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or similar anti-takeover plan or arrangement in effect or hereafter adopted by the Company, or that any Underwriter of Securities could be deemed to trigger the provisions of any such plan or arrangement, by virtue of receiving Securities.

4.17 Reservation of Common Stock. As of the date hereof, the Company has reserved and the Company shall continue to reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, a sufficient number of shares of Common Stock for the purpose of enabling the Company to issue Shares and the Underlying Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

4.18 Listing of Common Stock. The Company hereby agrees to use reasonable best efforts to maintain the listing or quotation of the Common Stock on the Trading Market on which it is currently listed, and concurrently with the Closing, the Company shall apply to list or quote all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares and Underlying Shares on such Trading Market and promptly secure the listing of all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares and Underlying Shares on such Trading Market. The Company further agrees, if the Company applies to have the Common Stock traded on any other Trading Market, it will then include in such application all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares and Underlying Shares, and will take such other action as is necessary to cause all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares and Underlying Shares to be listed or quoted on such other Trading Market as promptly as possible. The Company will then take all action reasonably necessary to continue the listing and trading of its Common Stock on a Trading Market and will comply in all material respects with the Company’s reporting, filing and other obligations under the bylaws or rules of the Trading Market. The Company agrees to maintain the eligibility of the Common Stock for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation, including, without limitation, by timely payment of fees to the Depository Trust Company or such other established clearing corporation in connection with such electronic transfer.

4.19 Subsequent Equity Sales.

 

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(a) From the date hereof until ninety (90) days following the Closing Date neither the Company nor any Subsidiary shall issue, enter into any agreement to issue or announce the issuance or proposed issuance of any shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents.

(b) From the date hereof until six (6) months following the Closing Date, the Company shall be prohibited from effecting or entering into an agreement to effect any issuance by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents (or a combination of units thereof) involving a Variable Rate Transaction. “Variable Rate Transaction” means a transaction in which the Company (i) issues or sells any debt or equity securities that are convertible into, exchangeable or exercisable for, or include the right to receive, additional shares of Common Stock either (A) at a conversion price, exercise price or exchange rate or other price that is based upon, and/or varies with, the trading prices of or quotations for the shares of Common Stock at any time after the initial issuance of such debt or equity securities or (B) with a conversion, exercise or exchange price that is subject to being reset at some future date after the initial issuance of such debt or equity security or upon the occurrence of specified or contingent events directly or indirectly related to the business of the Company or the market for the Common Stock or (ii) enters into, or effects a transaction under, any agreement, including, but not limited to, an equity line of credit, whereby the Company may issue securities at a future determined price; provided however, that after ninety (90) days following the Closing Date, the Company shall be permitted to enter into and effect sales of its Common Stock pursuant to an at-the-market offering facility with the Representative. Any Underwriter shall be entitled to obtain injunctive relief against the Company to preclude any such issuance, which remedy shall be in addition to any right to collect damages.

(c) Notwithstanding the foregoing, this Section 4.19 shall not apply in respect of an Exempt Issuance, except that no Variable Rate Transaction shall be an Exempt Issuance.

4.20 Research Independence. The Company acknowledges that each Underwriter’s research analysts and research departments, if any, are required to be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and that such Underwriter’s research analysts may hold and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company and/or the offering that differ from the views of its investment bankers. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against such Underwriter with respect to any conflict of interest that may arise from the fact that the views expressed by their independent research analysts and research departments may be different from or inconsistent with the views or advice communicated to the Company by such Underwriter’s investment banking divisions. The Company acknowledges that the Representative is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short position in debt or equity securities of the Company.

 

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ARTICLE V.

DEFAULT BY UNDERWRITERS

5.1 Default by Underwriter. If on the Closing Date or any Option Closing Date, if any, any Underwriter shall fail to purchase and pay for the portion of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which such Underwriter has agreed to purchase and pay for on such date (otherwise than by reason of any default on the part of the Company), the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, shall use their reasonable efforts to procure within 36 hours thereafter one or more of the other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase from the Company such amounts as may be agreed upon and upon the terms set forth herein, the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase. If during such 36 hours the Representative shall not have procured such other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, agreed to be purchased by the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters, then (a) if the aggregate number of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur does not exceed 10% of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, covered hereby, the other Underwriters shall be obligated, severally, in proportion to the respective numbers of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which they are obligated to purchase hereunder, to purchase the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which such defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase, or (b) if the aggregate number of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur exceeds 10% of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, covered hereby, the Company or the Representative will have the right to terminate this Agreement without liability on the part of the non-defaulting Underwriters or of the Company except to the extent provided in Article VI hereof. In the event of a default by any Underwriter or Underwriters, as set forth in this Article V, the applicable Closing Date may be postponed for such period, not exceeding seven days, as the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, may determine in order that the required changes in the Prospectus or in any other documents or arrangements may be effected. The term “Underwriter” includes any Person substituted for a defaulting Underwriter. Any action taken under this Section shall not relieve any defaulting Underwriter from liability in respect of any default of such Underwriter under this Agreement.

ARTICLE VI.

INDEMNIFICATION

6.1 Indemnification of the Underwriters. Subject to the conditions set forth below, the Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Underwriters, and each dealer selected by each Underwriter that participates in the offer and sale of the Securities (each a “Selected Dealer”) and each of their respective directors, officers and employees and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or any Selected Dealer (“Controlling Person”) within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever (including but not limited to any and all legal or other expenses reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, commenced or

 

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threatened, or any claim whatsoever, whether arising out of any action between such Underwriter and the Company or between such Underwriter and any third party or otherwise) to which they or any of them may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other statute or at common law or otherwise or under the laws of foreign countries, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in (i) any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (as from time to time each may be amended and supplemented); (ii) any materials or information provided to investors by, or with the approval of, the Company in connection with the marketing of the offering of the Securities, including any “road show” or investor presentations made to investors by the Company (whether in person or electronically); or (iii) any application or other document or written communication (in this Article VI, collectively called “application”) executed by the Company or based upon written information furnished by the Company in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Securities under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, any state securities commission or agency, Trading Market or any securities exchange; or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, unless such statement or omission was made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company with respect to the applicable Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, or in any application, as the case may be. With respect to any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made in the Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the indemnity agreement contained in this Section 6.1 shall not inure to the benefit of an Underwriter to the extent that any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense of such Underwriter results from the fact that a copy of the Prospectus was not given or sent to the Person asserting any such loss, liability, claim or damage at or prior to the written confirmation of sale of the Securities to such Person as required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and if the untrue statement or omission has been corrected in the Prospectus, unless such failure to deliver the Prospectus was a result of non-compliance by the Company with its obligations under this Agreement. The Company agrees promptly to notify each Underwriter of the commencement of any litigation or proceedings against the Company or any of its officers, directors or Controlling Persons in connection with the issue and sale of the Public Securities or in connection with the Registration Statement or Prospectus.

6.2 Procedure. If any action is brought against an Underwriter, a Selected Dealer or a Controlling Person in respect of which indemnity may be sought against the Company pursuant to Section 6.1, such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person, as the case may be, shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the institution of such action and the Company shall assume the defense of such action, including the employment and fees of counsel (subject to the reasonable approval of such Underwriter or such Selected Dealer, as the case may be) and payment of actual expenses. Such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall have the right to employ its or their own counsel in any such case, but the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be at the expense of such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person unless (i) the employment of such counsel at the expense of the Company shall have been authorized in writing by the Company in connection with the defense of such action, or (ii) the Company shall not have employed counsel to have charge of the defense of such action, or (iii)

 

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such indemnified party or parties shall have reasonably concluded that there may be defenses available to it or them which are different from or additional to those available to the Company (in which case the Company shall not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party or parties), in any of which events the reasonable fees and expenses of not more than one additional firm of attorneys selected by such Underwriter (in addition to local counsel), Selected Dealer and/or Controlling Person shall be borne by the Company. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, if any Underwriter, Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall assume the defense of such action as provided above, the Company shall have the right to approve the terms of any settlement of such action which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld.

6.3 Indemnification of the Company. Each Underwriter severally and not jointly agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its directors, officers and employees and agents who control the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the foregoing indemnity from the Company to such Underwriter, as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions made in any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any application, in reliance upon, and in strict conformity with, written information furnished to the Company with respect to such Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in such Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any such application. In case any action shall be brought against the Company or any other Person so indemnified based on any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or any application, and in respect of which indemnity may be sought against such Underwriter, such Underwriter shall have the rights and duties given to the Company, and the Company and each other Person so indemnified shall have the rights and duties given to such Underwriter by the provisions of this Article VI. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.3, no Underwriter shall be required to indemnify the Company for any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Securities purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters’ obligations in this Section 6.3 to indemnify the Company are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.

6.4 Contribution.

(a) Contribution Rights. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution under the Securities Act in any case in which (i) any Person entitled to indemnification under this Article VI makes a claim for indemnification pursuant hereto but it is judicially determined (by the entry of a final judgment or decree by a court of competent jurisdiction and the expiration of time to appeal or the denial of the last right of appeal) that such indemnification may not be enforced in such case notwithstanding the fact that this Article VI provides for indemnification in such case, or (ii) contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise may be required on the part of any such Person in circumstances for which indemnification is provided under this Article VI, then, and in each such case, the Company and each Underwriter, severally and not jointly, shall contribute to the aggregate losses, liabilities, claims, damages and expenses of the nature

 

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contemplated by said indemnity agreement incurred by the Company and such Underwriter, as incurred, in such proportions that such Underwriter is responsible for that portion represented by the percentage that the underwriting discount appearing on the cover page of the Prospectus bears to the initial offering price appearing thereon and the Company is responsible for the balance; provided, that, no Person guilty of a fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any Person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section, each director, officer and employee of such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act shall have the same rights to contribution as such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.4, no Underwriter shall be required to contribute any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Securities purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters’ obligations in this Section 6.4 to contribute are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.

(b) Contribution Procedure. Within fifteen days after receipt by any party to this Agreement (or its representative) of notice of the commencement of any action, suit or proceeding, such party will, if a claim for contribution in respect thereof is to be made against another party (“contributing party”), notify the contributing party of the commencement thereof, but the failure to so notify the contributing party will not relieve it from any liability which it may have to any other party other than for contribution hereunder. In case any such action, suit or proceeding is brought against any party, and such party notifies a contributing party or its representative of the commencement thereof within the aforesaid fifteen days, the contributing party will be entitled to participate therein with the notifying party and any other contributing party similarly notified. Any such contributing party shall not be liable to any party seeking contribution on account of any settlement of any claim, action or proceeding affected by such party seeking contribution without the written consent of such contributing party. The contribution provisions contained in this Section 6.4 are intended to supersede, to the extent permitted by law, any right to contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise available.

ARTICLE VII.

MISCELLANEOUS

7.1 Termination.

(a) Termination Right. The Representative shall have the right to terminate this Agreement at any time prior to any Closing Date, (i) if any domestic or international event or act or occurrence has materially disrupted, or in its opinion will in the immediate future materially disrupt, general securities markets in the United States; or (ii) if trading on any Trading Market shall have been suspended or materially limited, or minimum or maximum prices for trading shall have been fixed, or maximum ranges for prices for securities shall have been required by FINRA or by order of the Commission or any other government

 

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authority having jurisdiction, or (iii) if the United States shall have become involved in a new war or an increase in major hostilities that materially adversely impacts the United States securities markets, or (iv) if a banking moratorium has been declared by a New York State or federal authority, or (v) if a moratorium on foreign exchange trading has been declared which materially adversely impacts the United States securities markets, or (vi) if the Company shall have sustained a material loss by fire, flood, accident, hurricane, earthquake, theft, sabotage or other calamity or malicious act which, whether or not such loss shall have been insured, will, in the Representative’s opinion, make it inadvisable to proceed with the delivery of the Securities, or (vii) if the Company is in material breach of any of its representations, warranties or covenants hereunder, or (viii) if the Representative shall have become aware after the date hereof of such a material adverse change in the conditions or prospects of the Company, or such adverse material change in general market conditions as in the Representative’s reasonable judgment would make it impracticable to proceed with the offering, sale and/or delivery of the Securities or to enforce contracts made by the Underwriters for the sale of the Securities.

(b) Expenses. In the event this Agreement shall be terminated pursuant to Section 7.1(a), within the time specified herein or any extensions thereof pursuant to the terms herein, the Company shall be obligated to pay to the Representative its actual and accountable reasonable and documented out of pocket expenses related to the transactions contemplated herein then due and payable, including the fees and disbursements of EGS up to $50,000 in the aggregate (provided, however, that such expense cap in no way limits or impairs the indemnification and contribution provisions of this Agreement).

(c) Indemnification. Notwithstanding any contrary provision contained in this Agreement, any election hereunder or any termination of this Agreement, and whether or not this Agreement is otherwise carried out, the provisions of Article VI shall not be in any way effected by such election or termination or failure to carry out the terms of this Agreement or any part hereof.

7.2 Entire Agreement. The Transaction Documents, together with the exhibits and schedules thereto, the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, contain the entire understanding of the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and thereof and supersede all prior agreements and understandings, oral or written, with respect to such matters, which the parties acknowledge have been merged into such documents, exhibits and schedules. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Investment Banking Agreement, dated November 9, 2021, as amended on April 20, 2022 (“Engagement Agreement”), by and between the Company and the Representative, shall continue to be effective and the terms therein, including, without limitation, Section 4(b), Section 4(c), and Section 5 with respect to any future offerings, shall continue to survive and be enforceable by the Representative in accordance with its terms, provided that, in the event of a conflict between the terms of the Engagement Agreement and this Agreement, the terms of this Agreement shall prevail; provided, however, that the Company and the Representative hereby agree that compensation payable by the Company to the Representative for services rendered by the Representative in connection with the Offering shall supersede any fees payable by the Company pursuant to the Engagement Agreement.

 

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7.3 Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries required or permitted to be provided hereunder shall be in writing and shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of: (a) the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via e-mail attachment at the email address set forth on the signature pages attached hereto at or prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on a Trading Day, (b) the next Trading Day after the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via e-mail attachment at the e-mail address as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (c) the second (2nd) Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service or (d) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. The address for such notices and communications shall be as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto.

7.4 Amendments; Waivers. No provision of this Agreement may be waived, modified, supplemented or amended except in a written instrument signed, in the case of an amendment, by the Company and the Representative. No waiver of any default with respect to any provision, condition or requirement of this Agreement shall be deemed to be a continuing waiver in the future or a waiver of any subsequent default or a waiver of any other provision, condition or requirement hereof, nor shall any delay or omission of any party to exercise any right hereunder in any manner impair the exercise of any such right.

7.5 Headings. The headings herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Agreement and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.

7.6 Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties and their successors and permitted assigns.

7.7 Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of the Transaction Documents shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal Proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and any other Transaction Documents (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein (including with respect to the enforcement of any of the Transaction Documents), and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any Action or Proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such Action or Proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such Proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such Action or Proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law. If

 

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either party shall commence an Action or Proceeding to enforce any provisions of the Transaction Documents, then, in addition to the obligations of the Company under Article VI, the prevailing party in such Action or Proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its reasonable attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such Action or Proceeding.

7.8 Survival. The representations and warranties contained herein shall survive the Closing and the Option Closing, if any, and the delivery of the Securities.

7.9 Execution. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, all of which when taken together shall be considered one and the same agreement and shall become effective when counterparts have been signed by each party and delivered to each other party, it being understood that the parties need not sign the same counterpart. In the event that any signature is delivered by e-mail delivery of a “.pdf” format data file, such signature shall create a valid and binding obligation of the party executing (or on whose behalf such signature is executed) with the same force and effect as if such “.pdf” signature page were an original thereof.

7.10 Severability. If any term, provision, covenant or restriction of this Agreement is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable, the remainder of the terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions set forth herein shall remain in full force and effect and shall in no way be affected, impaired or invalidated, and the parties hereto shall use their commercially reasonable efforts to find and employ an alternative means to achieve the same or substantially the same result as that contemplated by such term, provision, covenant or restriction. It is hereby stipulated and declared to be the intention of the parties that they would have executed the remaining terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions without including any of such that may be hereafter declared invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable.

7.11 Remedies. In addition to being entitled to exercise all rights provided herein or granted by law, including recovery of damages, the Underwriters and the Company will be entitled to specific performance under the Transaction Documents. The parties agree that monetary damages may not be adequate compensation for any loss incurred by reason of any breach of obligations contained in the Transaction Documents and hereby agree to waive and not to assert in any Action for specific performance of any such obligation the defense that a remedy at law would be adequate.

7.12 Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays, etc. If the last or appointed day for the taking of any action or the expiration of any right required or granted herein shall not be a Business Day, then such action may be taken or such right may be exercised on the next succeeding Business Day.

7.13 Construction. The parties agree that each of them and/or their respective counsel have reviewed and had an opportunity to revise the Transaction Documents and, therefore, the normal rule of construction to the effect that any ambiguities are to be resolved against the drafting party shall not be employed in the interpretation of the Transaction Documents or any amendments thereto. In addition, each and every reference to share prices and shares of Common Stock in any Transaction Document shall be subject to adjustment for reverse and forward stock splits, stock

 

41


dividends, stock combinations and other similar transactions of the Common Stock that occur after the date of this Agreement.

7.14 WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. IN ANY ACTION, SUIT, OR PROCEEDING IN ANY JURISDICTION BROUGHT BY ANY PARTY AGAINST ANY OTHER PARTY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, THE PARTIES EACH KNOWINGLY AND INTENTIONALLY, TO THE GREATEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, HEREBY ABSOLUTELY, UNCONDITIONALLY, IRREVOCABLY AND EXPRESSLY WAIVE FOREVER ANY RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY.

(Signature Pages Follow)

 

42


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Underwriters and the Company, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement among the Company and the several Underwriters in accordance with its terms.

 

Very truly yours,
PALISADE BIO, INC.
By:  

                 

  Name:   Thomas M. Hallam, Ph.D.
  Title:   Chief Executive Officer

Address for Notice:

Attn:

Copy to:

Accepted on the date first above written.

LADENBURG THALMANN & CO. INC.

As the Representative of the several

Underwriters listed on Schedule I

By: Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.

 

By:  

 

  Name: Nicholas Stergis
  Title: Managing Director

Address for Notice:

640 Fifth Avenue, 4th Floor

New York, NY 10019

Attn: General Counsel

Copy to:

Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP

1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10105

Attn: Michael F. Nertney, Esq.

 

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SCHEDULE I

SCHEDULE OF UNDERWRITERS

 

Underwriters

   Closing
Shares
     Closing
Preferred
Shares
     Closing
Warrants
     Closing
Purchase
Price
 

Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.

           

Total

           

 

44

EX-3.4

Exhibit 3.4

PALISADE BIO, INC.

CERTIFICATE OF DESIGNATION OF PREFERENCES,

RIGHTS AND LIMITATIONS

OF

SERIES B CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK

PURSUANT TO SECTION 151 OF THE

DELAWARE GENERAL CORPORATION LAW

The undersigned, Thomas M. Hallam, Ph.D. and J.D. Finley, do hereby certify that:

1. They are the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, respectively, of Palisade Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”).

2. The Corporation is authorized to issue 7,000,000 shares of preferred stock, 1,000,000 of which heretofore have been designated as Series A 4.5% Convertible Preferred Stock and 200,000 of which shares of Series A 4.5% Convertible Preferred Stock heretofore are issued by the Corporation as of the date hereof.

3. The following resolutions were duly adopted by the Strategy and Finance Committee (the “Finance Committee”) of the board of directors of the Corporation (the “Board of Directors”):

WHEREAS, the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation provides for a class of its authorized stock known as preferred stock, consisting of 7,000,000 shares, $0.01 par value per share, issuable from time to time in one or more series;

WHEREAS, the Board of Directors is authorized to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series of preferred stock, and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each such series of preferred stock and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, and has authorized the Finance Committee to execute such powers; and

WHEREAS, it is the desire of the Finance Committee, pursuant to its authority as aforesaid, to fix the designation, powers, preferences, rights, qualifications, limitations, restrictions and other matters relating to a series of the preferred stock, which shall consist of, except as otherwise set forth in the Underwriting Agreement, up to _______ shares of the preferred stock which the Corporation has the authority to issue, as follows:

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that the Finance Committee does hereby provide for the issuance of a series of preferred stock for cash or exchange of other securities, rights or property and does hereby fix and determine the powers, preferences, rights, qualifications, limitations, restrictions and other matters relating to such series of preferred stock as follows:


TERMS OF PREFERRED STOCK

Section 1. Definitions. For the purposes hereof, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

Affiliate” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Alternate Consideration” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).

Beneficial Ownership Limitation” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d).

Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

Buy-In” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c)(iv).

Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Stock” means the Corporation’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and stock of any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Corporation or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, rights, options, warrants or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.

Conversion Amount” means the sum of the Stated Value at issue.

Conversion Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).

Conversion Price” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(b).

Conversion Shares” means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the shares of Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof.

Delaware Courts” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 8(d).

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Fundamental Transaction” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).

GAAP” means United States generally accepted accounting principles.

 

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Holder” shall have the meaning given such term in Section 2.

Liquidation” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.

New York Courts” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 8(d).

Notice of Conversion” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).

Original Issue Date” means the date of the first issuance of any shares of the Preferred Stock regardless of the number of transfers of any particular shares of Preferred Stock and regardless of the number of certificates which may be issued to evidence such Preferred Stock.

Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Preferred Stock” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.

Representative” means Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Share Delivery Date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c).

Stated Value” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2, as the same may be increased pursuant to Section 3.

Subsidiaries” means any subsidiary of the Corporation and shall, where applicable, also include any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Corporation formed or acquired after the date hereof.

Successor Entity” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).

Trading Day” means a day on which the principal Trading Market is open for business.

Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).

Transfer Agent” means American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the current transfer agent of the Corporation with a mailing address of ___________ and a phone number of ___________, and any successor transfer agent of the Corporation.

Underwriting Agreement” means the underwriting agreement, dated as of _____ __, 2022, among the Corporation and the Representative, [as representative of the

 

3


underwriters named therein], as amended, modified or supplemented from time to time in accordance with its terms.

“VWAP” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b) if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the Holders of a majority in interest of the Preferred Stock then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Corporation, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Corporation.

Section 2. Designation, Amount and Par Value. The series of preferred stock shall be designated as its Series B Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Preferred Stock”) and the number of shares so designated shall be up to ___ (which shall not be subject to increase without the written consent of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Preferred Stock (each, a “Holder” and collectively, the “Holders”)). Each share of Preferred Stock shall have a par value of $0.01 per share and a stated value equal to $______, subject to increase set forth in Section 3 below (the “Stated Value”). The Preferred Stock will initially be issued in book-entry form and shall initially be represented only by one or more global certificates deposited with the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) and registered in the name of Cede & Co., a nominee of DTC, or as otherwise directed by DTC. As between the Corporation and a beneficial owner of Preferred Stock, such beneficial owner shall have all of the rights and remedies of a Holder hereunder. In addition, a beneficial owner of Preferred Stock has the right, upon written notice by such beneficial owner to the Corporation, to request the exchange of some or all of such beneficial owner’s interest in Preferred Stock represented by one or more global Preferred Stock certificates deposited with Cede & Co. (or its successor) for a physical Preferred Stock certificate (a “Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice” and the date of delivery of such Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice by a beneficial owner, the “Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice Date” and the deemed surrender upon delivery by the beneficial owner of a number of global shares of Preferred Stock for the same number of shares of Preferred Stock represented by a physical stock certificate, a “Preferred Stock Exchange”, and such physical certificate(s), a “Preferred Stock Certificate”). Upon delivery of a Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice, the Corporation shall promptly effect the Preferred Stock Exchange and shall promptly issue and deliver to the beneficial owner a physical Preferred Stock Certificate for such number of shares of Preferred Stock represented by its interest in such global certificates in the name of the beneficial owner. Such Preferred Stock Certificate shall be dated the original issue date and shall be executed by an authorized signatory of the Corporation. In connection with a Preferred Stock Exchange, the Corporation agrees to deliver the Preferred Stock Certificate to the Holder within three (3) Business Days of the delivery of a properly

 

4


completed and executed Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice pursuant to the delivery instructions in the Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice. The Corporation covenants and agrees that, upon the date of delivery of the properly completed and executed Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice, the Holder shall be deemed to be the holder of the Preferred Stock Certificate and further, for purposes of Regulation SHO, a Holder whose interest in this Preferred Stock is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing this Preferred Stock held in book-entry form through DTC shall be deemed to have converted its interest in this Preferred Stock upon instructing its broker that is a DTC participant to convert its interest in this Preferred Stock, and, notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth herein, the Preferred Stock Certificate shall be deemed for all purposes to represent all of the terms and conditions of the Preferred Stock evidenced by such global Preferred Stock certificates and the terms hereof.

Section 3. Dividends. Except for stock dividends or distributions for which adjustments are to be made pursuant to Section 7, Holders shall be entitled to receive, and the Corporation shall pay, dividends on shares of Preferred Stock equal (on an as-if-converted-to-Common-Stock basis, disregarding for such purpose any conversion limitations hereunder) to and in the same form as dividends actually paid on shares of the Common Stock when, as and if such dividends are paid on shares of the Common Stock. No other dividends shall be paid on shares of Preferred Stock. The Corporation shall not pay any dividends on the Common Stock unless the Corporation simultaneously complies with this provision.

Section 4. Voting Rights. Except as otherwise provided herein or as otherwise required by law, the Preferred Stock shall have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Preferred Stock are outstanding, the Corporation shall not, without the affirmative vote of the Holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Preferred Stock, (a) alter or change adversely the powers, preferences or rights given to the Preferred Stock or alter or amend this Certificate of Designation, (b) amend its certificate of incorporation or other charter documents in any manner that adversely affects any rights of the Holders, (c) increase the number of authorized shares of Preferred Stock, or (d) enter into any agreement with respect to any of the foregoing.

Section 5. Liquidation. Upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary (a “Liquidation”), the Holders shall be entitled to receive out of the assets, whether capital or surplus, of the Corporation the same amount that a holder of Common Stock would receive if the Preferred Stock were fully converted (disregarding for such purposes any conversion limitations hereunder) to Common Stock which amounts shall be paid pari passu with all holders of Common Stock. The Corporation shall mail written notice of any such Liquidation, not less than 45 days prior to the payment date stated therein, to each Holder.

Section 6. Conversion.

(a) Conversions at Option of Holder. Each share of Preferred Stock shall be convertible, at any time and from time to time from and after the Original Issue Date at the option of the Holder thereof, into that number of shares of Common Stock (subject to the limitations set forth in Section 6(d)) determined by dividing the Stated Value of such share of Preferred Stock by the Conversion Price. Holders shall effect conversions by providing the Corporation with the form of conversion notice attached hereto as Annex A (a “Notice of Conversion”). Each Notice of

 

5


Conversion shall specify the number of shares of Preferred Stock to be converted, the number of shares of Preferred Stock owned prior to the conversion at issue, the number of shares of Preferred Stock owned subsequent to the conversion at issue and the date on which such conversion is to be effected, which date may not be prior to the date the applicable Holder delivers by e-mail such Notice of Conversion to the Corporation (such date, the “Conversion Date”). If no Conversion Date is specified in a Notice of Conversion, the Conversion Date shall be the date that such Notice of Conversion to the Corporation is deemed delivered hereunder. No ink-original Notice of Conversion shall be required, nor shall any medallion guarantee (or other type of guarantee or notarization) of any Notice of Conversion form be required. The calculations and entries set forth in the Notice of Conversion shall control in the absence of manifest or mathematical error. To effect conversions of shares of Preferred Stock, a Holder shall not be required to surrender the certificate(s) representing the shares of Preferred Stock to the Corporation unless all of the shares of Preferred Stock represented thereby are so converted, in which case such Holder shall deliver the certificate representing such shares of Preferred Stock promptly following the Conversion Date at issue. Shares of Preferred Stock converted into Common Stock or redeemed in accordance with the terms hereof shall be canceled and shall not be reissued. Notwithstanding the foregoing in this Section 6(a), a holder whose interest in the Preferred Stock is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing the Preferred Stock held in book-entry form through DTC (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), shall effect conversions made pursuant to this Section 6(a) by delivering to DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable) the appropriate instruction form for conversion, complying with the procedures to effect conversions that are required by DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable), subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive Preferred Stock in certificated form pursuant to Section 2, in which case this sentence shall not apply.

(b) Conversion Price. The conversion price for the Preferred Stock shall equal $_____, subject to adjustment herein (the “Conversion Price”).

(c) Mechanics of Conversion

(i) Delivery of Conversion Shares Upon Conversion. Not later than the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period (as defined below) after each Conversion Date (the “Share Delivery Date”), the Corporation shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the converting Holder (A) the number of Conversion Shares being acquired upon the conversion of the Preferred Stock, which Conversion Shares shall be free of restrictive legends and trading restrictions, and (B) a bank check in the amount of accrued and unpaid dividends, if any. The Corporation shall use its best efforts to deliver the Conversion Shares required to be delivered by the Corporation under this Section 6 electronically through the DTC or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions. As used herein, “Standard Settlement Period” means the standard settlement period, expressed in a number of Trading Days, on the Corporation’s primary Trading Market with respect to the Common Stock as in effect on the date of delivery of the Notice of Conversion. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to any Notice(s) of Conversion delivered by 10:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the Original Issue Date, the Corporation agrees to deliver the Conversion Shares subject to such notice(s) by 4:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Original Issue Date.

 

6


(ii) Failure to Deliver Conversion Shares. If, in the case of any Notice of Conversion, such Conversion Shares are not delivered to or as directed by the applicable Holder by the Share Delivery Date, the Holder shall be entitled to elect by written notice to the Corporation at any time on or before its receipt of such Conversion Shares, to rescind such Conversion, in which event the Corporation shall promptly return to the Holder any original Preferred Stock certificate delivered to the Corporation and the Holder shall promptly return to the Corporation the Conversion Shares issued to such Holder pursuant to the rescinded Notice of Conversion.

(iii) Obligation Absolute; Partial Liquidated Damages. The Corporation’s obligation to issue and deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof are absolute and unconditional, irrespective of any action or inaction by a Holder to enforce the same, any waiver or consent with respect to any provision hereof, the recovery of any judgment against any Person or any action to enforce the same, or any setoff, counterclaim, recoupment, limitation or termination, or any breach or alleged breach by such Holder or any other Person of any obligation to the Corporation or any violation or alleged violation of law by such Holder or any other person, and irrespective of any other circumstance which might otherwise limit such obligation of the Corporation to such Holder in connection with the issuance of such Conversion Shares; provided, however, that such delivery shall not operate as a waiver by the Corporation of any such action that the Corporation may have against such Holder. In the event a Holder shall elect to convert any or all of the Stated Value of its Preferred Stock, the Corporation may not refuse conversion based on any claim that such Holder or any one associated or affiliated with such Holder has been engaged in any violation of law, agreement or for any other reason, unless an injunction from a court, on notice to Holder, restraining and/or enjoining conversion of all or part of the Preferred Stock of such Holder shall have been sought and obtained. In the absence of such injunction, the Corporation shall issue Conversion Shares and, if applicable, cash, upon a properly noticed conversion. If the Corporation fails to deliver to a Holder such Conversion Shares pursuant to Section 6(c)(i) by the Share Delivery Date applicable to such conversion, the Corporation shall pay to such Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $5,000 of Stated Value of Preferred Stock being converted, $50 per Trading Day (increasing to $100 per Trading Day on the third Trading Day and increasing to $200 per Trading Day on the sixth Trading Day after such damages begin to accrue) for each Trading Day after the Share Delivery Date until such Conversion Shares are delivered or Holder rescinds such conversion. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue actual damages for the Corporation’s failure to deliver Conversion Shares within the period specified herein and such Holder shall have the right to pursue all remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief. The exercise of any such rights shall not prohibit a Holder from seeking to enforce damages pursuant to any other Section hereof or under applicable law.

(iv) Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Conversion Shares Upon Conversion. In addition to any other rights available to the Holder, if the Corporation fails for any reason to deliver to a Holder the applicable Conversion Shares by

 

7


the Share Delivery Date pursuant to Section 6(c)(i), and if after such Share Delivery Date such Holder is required by its brokerage firm to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise), or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by such Holder of the Conversion Shares which such Holder was entitled to receive upon the conversion relating to such Share Delivery Date (a “Buy-In”), then the Corporation shall (A) pay in cash to such Holder (in addition to any other remedies available to or elected by such Holder) the amount, if any, by which (x) such Holder’s total purchase price (including any brokerage commissions) for the Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the product of (1) the aggregate number of shares of Common Stock that such Holder was entitled to receive from the conversion at issue multiplied by (2) the actual sale price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed (including any brokerage commissions) and (B) at the option of such Holder, either reissue (if surrendered) the shares of Preferred Stock equal to the number of shares of Preferred Stock submitted for conversion (in which case, such conversion shall be deemed rescinded) or deliver to such Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued if the Corporation had timely complied with its delivery requirements under Section 6(c)(i). For example, if a Holder purchases shares of Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted conversion of shares of Preferred Stock with respect to which the actual sale price of the Conversion Shares (including any brokerage commissions) giving rise to such purchase obligation was a total of $10,000 under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence, the Corporation shall be required to pay such Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Corporation written notice indicating the amounts payable to such Holder in respect of the Buy-In and, upon request of the Corporation, evidence of the amount of such loss. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Corporation’s failure to timely deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of the shares of Preferred Stock as required pursuant to the terms hereof.

(v) Reservation of Shares Issuable Upon Conversion. The Corporation covenants that it will at all times reserve and keep available out of its authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock for the sole purpose of issuance upon conversion of the Preferred Stock as herein provided, free from preemptive rights or any other actual contingent purchase rights of Persons other than the Holder (and the other holders of the Preferred Stock), not less than such aggregate number of shares of the Common Stock as shall be issuable (taking into account the adjustments and restrictions of Section 7) upon the conversion of the then outstanding shares of Preferred Stock. The Corporation covenants that all shares of Common Stock that shall be so issuable shall, upon issue, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

(vi) Fractional Shares. No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares shall be issued upon the conversion of the Preferred Stock. As to any fraction of a share which the Holder would otherwise be entitled to purchase upon such conversion, the Corporation shall at its election, either pay a cash adjustment in respect of such final fraction in an amount equal to such fraction multiplied by the Conversion Price or round up to the next whole share. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained

 

8


herein, but consistent with the provisions of this subsection with respect to fractional Conversion Shares, nothing shall prevent any Holder from converting fractional shares of Preferred Stock.

(vii) Transfer Taxes and Expenses. The issuance of Conversion Shares on conversion of this Preferred Stock shall be made without charge to any Holder for any documentary stamp or similar taxes that may be payable in respect of the issue or delivery of such Conversion Shares, provided that the Corporation shall not be required to pay any tax that may be payable in respect of any transfer involved in the issuance and delivery of any such Conversion Shares upon conversion in a name other than that of the Holders of such shares of Preferred Stock and the Corporation shall not be required to issue or deliver such Conversion Shares unless or until the Person or Persons requesting the issuance thereof shall have paid to the Corporation the amount of such tax or shall have established to the satisfaction of the Corporation that such tax has been paid. The Corporation shall pay all Transfer Agent fees required for same-day processing of any Notice of Conversion and all fees to the DTC (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) required for same-day electronic delivery of the Conversion Shares.

(d) Beneficial Ownership Limitation. The Corporation shall not effect any conversion of the Preferred Stock, and a Holder shall not have the right to convert any portion of the Preferred Stock, to the extent that, after giving effect to the conversion set forth on the applicable Notice of Conversion, such Holder (together with such Holder’s Affiliates, and any Persons acting as a group together with such Holder or any of such Holder’s Affiliates (such Persons, “Attribution Parties”)) would beneficially own in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation (as defined below). For purposes of the foregoing sentence, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by such Holder and its Affiliates and Attribution Parties shall include the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Preferred Stock with respect to which such determination is being made, but shall exclude the number of shares of Common Stock which are issuable upon (i) conversion of the remaining, unconverted Stated Value of Preferred Stock beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties and (ii) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or unconverted portion of any other securities of the Corporation subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise analogous to the limitation contained herein (including, without limitation, the Preferred Stock) beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties. Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this Section 6(d), beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. The Corporation makes no representation to the Holder that its calculations are in compliance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and that the Holder is solely responsible for any schedules required to be filed in accordance therewith. To the extent that the limitation contained in this Section 6(d) applies, the determination of whether the Preferred Stock is convertible (in relation to other securities owned by such Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of how many shares of Preferred Stock are convertible shall be in the sole discretion of such Holder, and the submission of a Notice of Conversion shall be deemed to be such Holder’s determination of whether the shares of Preferred Stock may be converted (in relation to other securities owned by such Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and how many shares of the Preferred Stock are convertible, in each case subject to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation. To ensure compliance with this restriction, each Holder will be deemed to

 

9


represent to the Corporation each time it delivers a Notice of Conversion that such Notice of Conversion has not violated the restrictions set forth in this paragraph and the Corporation shall have no obligation to verify or confirm the accuracy of such determination. In addition, a determination as to any group status as contemplated above shall be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this Section 6(d), in determining the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock, a Holder may rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as stated in the most recent of the following: (i) the Corporation’s most recent periodic or annual report filed with the Commission, as the case may be, (ii) a more recent public announcement by the Corporation or (iii) a more recent written notice by the Corporation or the Transfer Agent setting forth the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding. Upon the written or oral request (which may be via email) of a Holder, the Corporation shall within one (1) Trading Day confirm orally and in writing to such Holder the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding. In any case, the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock shall be determined after giving effect to the conversion or exercise of securities of the Corporation, including the Preferred Stock, by such Holder or its Affiliates or Attribution Parties since the date as of which such number of outstanding shares of Common Stock was reported. The “Beneficial Ownership Limitation” shall be 4.99% (or, upon election by a Holder prior to the issuance of any shares of Preferred Stock, 9.99%) of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of Preferred Stock held by the applicable Holder. A Holder, upon notice to the Corporation, may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation provisions of this Section 6(d) applicable to its Preferred Stock provided that the Beneficial Ownership Limitation in no event exceeds 9.99% of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon conversion of this Preferred Stock held by the Holder and the provisions of this Section 6(d) shall continue to apply. Any such increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until the 61st day after such notice is delivered to the Corporation and shall only apply to such Holder and no other Holder. The provisions of this paragraph shall be construed and implemented in a manner otherwise than in strict conformity with the terms of this Section 6(d) to correct this paragraph (or any portion hereof) which may be defective or inconsistent with the intended Beneficial Ownership Limitation contained herein or to make changes or supplements necessary or desirable to properly give effect to such limitation. The limitations contained in this paragraph shall apply to a successor holder of Preferred Stock.

(e) Forced Conversion. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, if after the Original Issue Date, (i) the VWAP during any 30 consecutive Trading Day period, which thirty (30) consecutive Trading Day period shall have commenced only after the Original Issue Date (the “Threshold Period”), exceeds $______1 (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and the like after the Original Issue Date) (ii) the average daily dollar trading volume for such Threshold Period exceeds $500,000 per Trading Day and (iii) the Holder is not in possession of any information that constitutes, or might constitute, material non-public information which was provided by the Corporation, any of its subsidiaries, or any of their officers, directors, employees, agents or Affiliates, then the Corporation may, within one (1) Trading Day after the end of any such Threshold Period, deliver a written notice to all

 

1 

300% of Conversion Price.

 

10


Holders (a “Forced Conversion Notice” and the date such notice is delivered to all Holders, the “Forced Conversion Notice Date”) to cause each Holder to convert all or part of such Holder’s Preferred Stock (as specified in such Forced Conversion Notice) pursuant to Section 6, it being agreed that the “Conversion Date” for purposes of Section 6 shall be deemed to occur on the third Trading Day following the Forced Conversion Notice Date (such third Trading Day, the “Forced Conversion Date”). Any Forced Conversion Notices shall be applied ratably to all of the Holders based on the then outstanding shares of Preferred Stock. For purposes of clarification, a Forced Conversion shall be subject to all of the provisions of Section 6, including, without limitation, the provisions requiring payment of liquidated damages and limitations on conversions.

Section 7. Certain Adjustments.

(a) Stock Dividends and Stock Splits. If the Corporation, at any time while this Preferred Stock is outstanding: (i) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions payable in shares of Common Stock on shares of Common Stock or any other Common Stock Equivalents (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Corporation upon conversion of, or payment of a dividend on, this Preferred Stock), (ii) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares, (iii) combines (including by way of a reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, or (iv) issues, in the event of a reclassification of shares of the Common Stock, any shares of capital stock of the Corporation, then the Conversion Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) outstanding immediately before such event, and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event. Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 7(a) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision, combination or re-classification.

(b) Subsequent Rights Offerings. In addition to any adjustments pursuant to Section 7(a) above, if at any time the Corporation grants, issues or sells any Common Stock Equivalents or rights to purchase stock, warrants, securities or other property pro rata to the record holders of any class of shares of Common Stock other than an Exempt Issuance (as defined in the Underwriting Agreement) (the “Purchase Rights”), then the Holder will be entitled to acquire, upon the terms applicable to such Purchase Rights, the aggregate Purchase Rights which the Holder could have acquired if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete conversion of such Holder’s Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date on which a record is taken for the grant, issuance or sale of such Purchase Rights, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the grant, issue or sale of such Purchase Rights (provided, however, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Purchase Right would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Purchase Right to such extent (or beneficial ownership of such shares of Common Stock as a result of such Purchase Right to such extent) and such Purchase Right to such extent shall be held in abeyance for the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

 

11


(c) Pro Rata Distributions. During such time as this Preferred Stock is outstanding, if the Corporation declares or makes any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of shares of Common Stock, other than as in Section 3(a), by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities, property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a “Distribution”), at any time after the issuance of this Preferred Stock, then, in each such case, the Holder shall be entitled to participate in such Distribution to the same extent that the Holder would have participated therein if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete conversion of this Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on conversion hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date of which a record is taken for such Distribution, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the participation in such Distribution (provided, however, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Distribution would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Distribution to such extent (or in the beneficial ownership of any shares of Common Stock as a result of such Distribution to such extent) and the portion of such Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

(d) Fundamental Transaction. If, at any time while this Preferred Stock is outstanding, (i) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any merger or consolidation of the Corporation with or into another Person, (ii) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, effects any sale, lease, license, assignment, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of its assets in one or a series of related transactions, (iii) any, direct or indirect, purchase offer, tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Corporation or another Person) is completed pursuant to which holders of Common Stock are permitted to sell, tender or exchange their shares for other securities, cash or property and has been accepted by the holders of 50% or more of the outstanding Common Stock, (iv) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any reclassification, reorganization or recapitalization of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property, or (v) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions consummates a stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination (including, without limitation, a reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off or scheme of arrangement) with another Person whereby such other Person acquires more than 50% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (not including any shares of Common Stock held by the other Person or other Persons making or party to, or associated or affiliated with the other Persons making or party to, such stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination) (each a “Fundamental Transaction”), then, upon any subsequent conversion of this Preferred Stock, the Holder shall have the right to receive, for each Conversion Share that would have been issuable upon such conversion immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 6(d) on the conversion of this Preferred Stock), the number of shares of Common Stock of the successor or acquiring corporation or of the Corporation, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration (the “Alternate Consideration”) receivable as a result of such Fundamental Transaction by a holder of the number of shares of Common Stock for which this

 

12


Preferred Stock is convertible immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 6(d) on the conversion of this Preferred Stock). For purposes of any such conversion, the determination of the Conversion Price shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Corporation shall apportion the Conversion Price among the Alternate Consideration in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holder shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any conversion of this Preferred Stock following such Fundamental Transaction. To the extent necessary to effectuate the foregoing provisions, any successor to the Corporation or surviving entity in such Fundamental Transaction shall file a new Certificate of Designation with the same terms and conditions and issue to the Holders new preferred stock consistent with the foregoing provisions and evidencing the Holders’ right to convert such preferred stock into Alternate Consideration. The Corporation shall cause any successor entity in a Fundamental Transaction in which the Corporation is not the survivor (the “Successor Entity”) to assume in writing all of the obligations of the Corporation under this Certificate of Designation in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7(d) and shall, at the option of the Holder, deliver to the Holder in exchange for this Preferred Stock a security of the Successor Entity evidenced by a written instrument substantially similar in form and substance to this Preferred Stock which is convertible for a corresponding number of shares of capital stock of such Successor Entity (or its parent entity) equivalent to the shares of Common Stock acquirable and receivable upon conversion of this Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on the conversion of this Preferred Stock) prior to such Fundamental Transaction, and with a conversion price which applies the conversion price hereunder to such shares of capital stock (but taking into account the relative value of the shares of Common Stock pursuant to such Fundamental Transaction and the value of such shares of capital stock, such number of shares of capital stock and such conversion price being for the purpose of protecting the economic value of this Preferred Stock immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction). Upon the occurrence of any such Fundamental Transaction, the Successor Entity shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such Fundamental Transaction, the provisions of this Certificate of Designation referring to the “Corporation” shall refer instead to the Successor Entity), and may exercise every right and power of the Corporation and shall assume all of the obligations of the Corporation under this Certificate of Designation with the same effect as if such Successor Entity had been named as the Corporation herein.

(e) Calculations. All calculations under this Section 7 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 7, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) issued and outstanding.

(f) Notice to the Holders.

(i) Adjustment to Conversion Price. Whenever the Conversion Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 7, the Corporation shall promptly deliver

 

13


to each Holder by email a notice setting forth the Conversion Price after such adjustment and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.

(ii) Notice to Allow Conversion by Holder. If (A) the Corporation shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Corporation shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Corporation shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Corporation shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the Common Stock, any consolidation or merger to which the Corporation is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Corporation, or any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property or (E) the Corporation shall authorize the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Corporation, then, in each case, the Corporation shall cause to be filed at each office or agency maintained for the purpose of conversion of this Preferred Stock, and shall cause to be delivered by email to each Holder at its last email address as it shall appear upon the stock books of the Corporation, at least ten (10) calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption, rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange, provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice. To the extent that any notice provided hereunder constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Corporation or any of the Subsidiaries, the Corporation shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K. The Holder shall remain entitled to convert the Conversion Amount of this Preferred Stock (or any part hereof) during the 10-day period commencing on the date of such notice through the effective date of the event triggering such notice except as may otherwise be expressly set forth herein.

Section 8. Miscellaneous.

(a) Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Conversion, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Corporation, at the address set forth above Attention: Chief Financial Officer, e-mail address ____________, or such other e-mail address or address as the Corporation may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders delivered in accordance with this Section 8. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Corporation hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by e-mail, or sent by a

 

14


nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the e-mail address or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the Corporation. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section 8 prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the next Trading Day after the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (iii) the second Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Certificate of Designation, where this Certificate of Designation provides for notice of any event to a Holder, such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to DTC (or any successor depository) pursuant to the procedures of DTC (or such successor depository).

(b) Absolute Obligation. Except as expressly provided herein, no provision of this Certificate of Designation shall alter or impair the obligation of the Corporation, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay liquidated damages, and accrued dividends, as applicable, on the shares of Preferred Stock at the time, place, and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.

(c) Lost or Mutilated Preferred Stock Certificate. If a Holder’s Preferred Stock certificate shall be mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, the Corporation shall execute and deliver, in exchange and substitution for and upon cancellation of a mutilated certificate, or in lieu of or in substitution for a lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, a new certificate for the shares of Preferred Stock so mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, but only upon receipt of evidence of such loss, theft or destruction of such certificate, and of the ownership hereof reasonably satisfactory to the Corporation.

(d) Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Certificate of Designation shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of Delaware, without regard to the principles of conflict of laws thereof. All legal proceedings concerning the interpretation, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Certificate of Designation (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective Affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, employees or agents) shall be commenced in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of Wilmington (the “Delaware Courts”) or the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan (the “New York Courts”). The Corporation and each Holder hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the Delaware Courts and the New York Courts for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of such Delaware Courts or such New York Courts, or such Delaware Courts or New York Courts are improper or inconvenient venue for such proceeding. The Corporation and each Holder hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Certificate of Designation and agrees that such service shall constitute good and

 

15


sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by applicable law. The Corporation and each Holder hereto hereby irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Certificate of Designation or the transactions contemplated hereby. If the Corporation or any Holder shall commence an action or proceeding to enforce any provisions of this Certificate of Designation, then the prevailing party in such action or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred in the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.

(e) Waiver. Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder of a breach of any provision of this Certificate of Designation shall not operate as or be construed to be a waiver of any other breach of such provision or of any breach of any other provision of this Certificate of Designation or a waiver by any other Holders. The failure of the Corporation or a Holder to insist upon strict adherence to any term of this Certificate of Designation on one or more occasions shall not be considered a waiver or deprive that party (or any other Holder) of the right thereafter to insist upon strict adherence to that term or any other term of this Certificate of Designation on any other occasion. Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder must be in writing.

(f) Severability. If any provision of this Certificate of Designation is invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the balance of this Certificate of Designation shall remain in effect, and if any provision is inapplicable to any Person or circumstance, it shall nevertheless remain applicable to all other Persons and circumstances. If it shall be found that any interest or other amount deemed interest due hereunder violates the applicable law governing usury, the applicable rate of interest due hereunder shall automatically be lowered to equal the maximum rate of interest permitted under applicable law.

(g) Next Business Day. Whenever any payment or other obligation hereunder shall be due on a day other than a Business Day, such payment shall be made on the next succeeding Business Day.

(h) Headings. The headings contained herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Certificate of Designation and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.

(i) Status of Converted or Redeemed Preferred Stock. If any shares of Preferred Stock shall be converted, redeemed or reacquired by the Corporation, such shares shall resume the status of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock and shall no longer be designated as Series B Convertible Preferred Stock.

*******************

 

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RESOLVED, FURTHER, that the Chief Executive Officer, the president or any vice-president, and the secretary or any assistant secretary, of the Corporation be and they hereby are authorized and directed to prepare and file this Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations in accordance with the foregoing resolution and the provisions of Delaware law.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned have executed this Certificate this ___ day of _____ 2022.

 

PALISADE BIO, INC.

 

Name: Thomas M. Hallam, Ph.D.
Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

Name: J.D. Finley
Title: Chief Financial Officer


ANNEX A

NOTICE OF CONVERSION

(TO BE EXECUTED BY THE REGISTERED HOLDER IN ORDER TO CONVERT SHARES OF PREFERRED STOCK)

The undersigned hereby elects to convert the number of shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock indicated below into shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), of Palisade Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”), according to the conditions hereof, as of the date written below. If shares of Common Stock are to be issued in the name of a Person other than the undersigned, the undersigned will pay all transfer taxes payable with respect thereto. No fee will be charged to the Holders for any conversion, except for any such transfer taxes.

Conversion calculations:

Date to Effect Conversion: _____________________________________________

Number of shares of Preferred Stock owned prior to Conversion: _______________

Number of shares of Preferred Stock to be Converted: ________________________

Stated Value of shares of Preferred Stock to be Converted: ____________________

Number of shares of Common Stock to be Issued: ___________________________

Applicable Conversion Price:____________________________________________

Number of shares of Preferred Stock subsequent to Conversion: ________________

Address for Delivery: ______________________

or

DWAC Instructions:

Broker no: _________

Account no: ___________

 

18

EX-4.30

Exhibit 4.30

COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT

PALISADE BIO, INC.

 

Warrant Shares: _______    Initial Exercise Date: _______ __, 2022

CUSIP:

ISIN:

THIS COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT (the “Warrant”) certifies that, for value received, CEDE & CO. or its assigns (the “Holder”) is entitled, upon the terms and subject to the limitations on exercise and the conditions hereinafter set forth, at any time on or after the date hereof (the “Initial Exercise Date”) and on or prior to 5:00 p.m. (New York City time) on _____ __, 20271 (the “Termination Date”) but not thereafter, to subscribe for and purchase from Palisade Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), up to ______ shares (as subject to adjustment hereunder, the “Warrant Shares”) of Common Stock. The purchase price of one share of Common Stock under this Warrant shall be equal to the Exercise Price, as defined in Section 2(b). This Warrant shall initially be issued and maintained in the form of a security held in book-entry form and the Depository Trust Company or its nominee (“DTC”) shall initially be the sole registered holder of this Warrant, subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive a Warrant in certificated form pursuant to the terms of the Warrant Agency Agreement, in which case this sentence shall not apply.

Section 1. Definitions. In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Warrant, the following terms have the meanings indicated in this Section 1:

Affiliate” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

Bid Price” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the bid price of the Common Stock for the time in question (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b) if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported on the Pink Open Market (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the Holders of a majority

 

1 

Insert the date that is the 5 year anniversary of the Initial Exercise Date; provided, however, that, if such date is not a Trading Day, insert the immediately following Trading Day.

 

1


in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company.

Business Day” means any day other than Saturday, Sunday or other day on which commercial banks in The City of New York are authorized or required by law to remain closed; provided, however, for clarification, commercial banks shall not be deemed to be authorized or required by law to remain closed due to “stay at home”, “shelter-in-place”, “non-essential employee” or any other similar orders or restrictions or the closure of any physical branch locations at the direction of any governmental authority so long as the electronic funds transfer systems (including for wire transfers) of commercial banks in The City of New York generally are open for use by customers on such day.

Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.01 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Registration Statement” means the Company’s registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-265769).

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Subsidiary” means any subsidiary of the Company and shall, where applicable, also include any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company formed or acquired after the date hereof.

Trading Day” means a day on which the Common Stock is traded on a Trading Market.

Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American,

 

2


the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).

Transfer Agent” means American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, the current transfer agent of the Company, with a mailing address of 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219 and an email address of _______________, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.

Underwriting Agreement” means the underwriting agreement, dated as of ____ __2022, among the Company and Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. as representative of the underwriters named therein, as amended, modified or supplemented from time to time in accordance with its terms.

VWAP” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b) if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported on the Pink Open Market (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the holders of a majority in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

Warrant Agency Agreement” means that certain warrant agency agreement, dated on or about the Initial Exercise Date, between the Company and the Warrant Agent.

Warrant Agent” means the Transfer Agent and any successor warrant agent of the Company.

Warrants” means this Warrant and other Common Stock purchase warrants issued by the Company pursuant to the Registration Statement.

Section 2. Exercise.

a) Exercise of Warrant. Exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant may be made, in whole or in part, at any time or times on or after the Initial Exercise Date and on or before the Termination Date by delivery to the Company of a duly executed PDF copy submitted by e-mail (or e-mail attachment) of the Notice of Exercise in the form annexed hereto (the “Notice of Exercise”). Within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period (as defined in Section 2(d)(i) herein) following the date of exercise as aforesaid, the Holder shall deliver the aggregate Exercise Price to the Company for the shares specified

 

3


in the applicable Notice of Exercise by wire transfer or cashier’s check drawn on a United States bank unless the cashless exercise procedure specified in Section 2(c) below is specified in the applicable Notice of Exercise. No ink-original Notice of Exercise shall be required, nor shall any medallion guarantee (or other type of guarantee or notarization) of any Notice of Exercise be required. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Holder shall not be required to physically surrender this Warrant to the Company until the Holder has purchased all of the Warrant Shares available hereunder and the Warrant has been exercised in full, in which case, the Holder shall surrender this Warrant to the Company for cancellation as soon as reasonably practicable of the date on which the final Notice of Exercise is delivered to the Company. Partial exercises of this Warrant resulting in purchases of a portion of the total number of Warrant Shares available hereunder shall have the effect of lowering the outstanding number of Warrant Shares purchasable hereunder in an amount equal to the applicable number of Warrant Shares purchased. The Holder and the Company shall maintain records showing the number of Warrant Shares purchased and the date of such purchases. The Company shall deliver any objection to any Notice of Exercise within one (1) Business Day of receipt of such notice. The Holder and any assignee, by acceptance of this Warrant, acknowledge and agree that, by reason of the provisions of this paragraph, following the purchase of a portion of the Warrant Shares hereunder, the number of Warrant Shares available for purchase hereunder at any given time may be less than the amount stated on the face hereof.

Notwithstanding the foregoing in this Section 2(a), a holder whose interest in this Warrant is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing this Warrant held in book-entry form through DTC (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), shall effect exercises made pursuant to this Section 2(a) by delivering to DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable) the appropriate instruction form for exercise, complying with the procedures to effect exercise that are required by DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable), subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive a Warrant in certificated form pursuant to the terms of the Warrant Agency Agreement, in which case this sentence shall not apply.

b) Exercise Price. The exercise price per share of Common Stock under this Warrant shall be $_____, subject to adjustment hereunder (the “Exercise Price”).

c) Cashless Exercise. If at the time of exercise hereof there is no effective registration statement registering, or the prospectus contained therein is not available for the issuance of the Warrant Shares to the Holder, then this Warrant may also be exercised, in whole or in part, at such time by means of a “cashless exercise” in which the Holder shall be entitled to receive a number of Warrant Shares equal to the quotient obtained by dividing [(A-B) (X)] by (A), where:

 

  (A) =

as applicable: (i) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is (1) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a day that is not a Trading Day or (2) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a Trading Day prior to the opening of “regular trading hours” (as defined in Rule 600(b) of Regulation NMS promulgated under the federal

 

4


  securities laws) on such Trading Day, (ii) at the option of the Holder, either (y) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise or (z) the Bid Price of the Common Stock on the principal Trading Market as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (“Bloomberg”) as of the time of the Holder’s execution of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is executed during “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day and is delivered within two (2) hours thereafter (including until two (2) hours after the close of “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day) pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof or (iii) the VWAP on the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise if the date of such Notice of Exercise is a Trading Day and such Notice of Exercise is both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof after the close of “regular trading hours” on such Trading Day;

 

  (B) =

the Exercise Price of this Warrant, as adjusted hereunder; and

 

  (X) =

the number of Warrant Shares that would be issuable upon exercise of this Warrant in accordance with the terms of this Warrant if such exercise were by means of a cash exercise rather than a cashless exercise.

If Warrant Shares are issued in such a cashless exercise, the parties acknowledge and agree that in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act, the Warrant Shares shall take on the registered characteristics of the Warrants being exercised. The Company agrees not to take any position contrary to this Section 2(c).

Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, on the Termination Date, this Warrant shall be automatically exercised via cashless exercise pursuant to this Section 2(c).

 

d)

Mechanics of Exercise.

i. Delivery of Warrant Shares Upon Exercise. The Company shall cause the Warrant Shares purchased hereunder to be transmitted by the Transfer Agent to the Holder by crediting the account of the Holder’s or its designee’s balance account with The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system (“DWAC”) if the Company is then a participant in such system and either (A) there is an effective registration statement permitting the issuance of the Warrant Shares to or resale of the Warrant Shares by Holder or (B) this Warrant is being exercised via cashless exercise, and otherwise by physical delivery of a certificate, registered in the Company’s share register in the name of the Holder or its designee, for the number of Warrant Shares to which the Holder is entitled pursuant to such exercise to the address specified by the Holder in the Notice of Exercise by the date that is the earliest of (i) two (2) Trading Days after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise, (ii) one (1) Trading Day after delivery of the aggregate Exercise Price to the Company and (iii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise (such date, the “Warrant Share Delivery Date”). Upon delivery

 

5


 

of the Notice of Exercise, the Holder shall be deemed for all corporate purposes to have become the holder of record of the Warrant Shares with respect to which this Warrant has been exercised, irrespective of the date of delivery of the Warrant Shares, provided that payment of the aggregate Exercise Price (other than in the case of a cashless exercise) is received within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period following delivery of the Notice of Exercise. If the Company fails for any reason to deliver to the Holder the Warrant Shares subject to a Notice of Exercise by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, the Company shall pay to the Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $1,000 of Warrant Shares subject to such exercise (based on the VWAP of the Common Stock on the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise), $10 per Trading Day (increasing to $20 per Trading Day on the third Trading Day after the Warrant Share Delivery Date) for each Trading Day after such Warrant Share Delivery Date until such Warrant Shares are delivered or Holder rescinds such exercise. The Company agrees to maintain a transfer agent that is a participant in the FAST program so long as this Warrant remains outstanding and exercisable. As used herein, “Standard Settlement Period” means the standard settlement period, expressed in a number of Trading Days, on the Company’s primary Trading Market with respect to the Common Stock as in effect on the date of delivery of the Notice of Exercise. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to any Notice(s) of Exercise delivered on or prior to 12:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Initial Exercise Date, which may be delivered at any time after the time of execution of the Underwriting Agreement, the Company agrees to deliver the Warrant Shares subject to such notice(s) by 10:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the Initial Exercise Date and the Initial Exercise Date shall be the Warrant Share Delivery Date for purposes hereunder, provided that payment of the aggregate Exercise Price (other than in the case of a cashless exercise) is received by such Warrant Share Delivery Date.

ii. Delivery of New Warrants Upon Exercise. If this Warrant shall have been exercised in part, the Company shall, at the request of a Holder and upon surrender of this Warrant certificate, at the time of delivery of the Warrant Shares, deliver to the Holder a new Warrant evidencing the rights of the Holder to purchase the unpurchased Warrant Shares called for by this Warrant, which new Warrant shall in all other respects be identical with this Warrant.

iii. Rescission Rights. If the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, then the Holder will have the right to rescind such exercise.

iv. Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Warrant Shares Upon Exercise. In addition to any other rights available to the

 

6


Holder, if the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares in accordance with the provisions of Section 2(d)(i) above pursuant to an exercise on or before the Warrant Share Delivery Date and the Holder has paid any required Exercise Price for the portion of this Warrant being exercised on or prior to such Warrant Share Delivery Date (or utilized cashless exercise, if available), and if after such date the Holder is required by its broker to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise) or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by the Holder of the Warrant Shares which the Holder anticipated receiving upon such exercise (a “Buy-In”), then the Company shall (A) pay in cash to the Holder the amount, if any, by which (x) the Holder’s total purchase price (including customary brokerage commissions, if any) for the shares of Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the amount obtained by multiplying (1) the number of Warrant Shares that the Company was required to deliver to the Holder in connection with the exercise at issue times (2) the price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed, and (B) at the option of the Holder, either reinstate the portion of the Warrant and equivalent number of Warrant Shares for which such exercise was not honored (in which case such exercise shall be deemed rescinded) or deliver to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued had the Company timely complied with its exercise and delivery obligations hereunder. For example, if the Holder purchases Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted exercise of shares of Common Stock with an aggregate sale price giving rise to such purchase obligation of $10,000, under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence the Company shall be required to pay the Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Company written notice indicating the amounts payable to the Holder in respect of the Buy-In and, upon request of the Company, evidence of the amount of such loss. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Company’s failure to timely deliver shares of Common Stock upon exercise of the Warrant as required pursuant to the terms hereof.

v. No Fractional Shares or Scrip. No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares shall be issued upon the exercise of this Warrant. As to any fraction of a share which the Holder would otherwise be entitled to purchase upon such exercise, the Company shall, at its election, either pay a cash adjustment in respect of such final fraction in an amount equal to such fraction multiplied by the Exercise Price or round up to the next whole share.

vi. Charges, Taxes and Expenses. Issuance of Warrant Shares shall be made without charge to the Holder for any issue or transfer tax or other

 

7


incidental expense in respect of the issuance of such Warrant Shares, all of which taxes and expenses shall be paid by the Company, and such Warrant Shares shall be issued in the name of the Holder or in such name or names as may be directed by the Holder; provided, however, that, in the event that Warrant Shares are to be issued in a name other than the name of the Holder, this Warrant when surrendered for exercise shall be accompanied by the Assignment Form attached hereto duly executed by the Holder and the Company may require, as a condition thereto, the payment of a sum sufficient to reimburse it for any transfer tax incidental thereto. The Company shall pay all Transfer Agent fees required for same-day processing of any Notice of Exercise and all fees to the Depository Trust Company (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) required for same-day electronic delivery of the Warrant Shares.

vii. Closing of Books. The Company will not close its stockholder books or records in any manner which prevents the timely exercise of this Warrant, pursuant to the terms hereof.

e) Holder’s Exercise Limitations. The Company shall not effect any exercise of this Warrant, and a Holder shall not have the right to exercise any portion of this Warrant, pursuant to Section 2 or otherwise, to the extent that after giving effect to such issuance after exercise as set forth on the applicable Notice of Exercise, the Holder (together with the Holder’s Affiliates, and any other Persons acting as a group together with the Holder or any of the Holder’s Affiliates (such Persons, collectively, “Attribution Parties”)), would beneficially own in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation (as defined below). For purposes of the foregoing sentence, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by the Holder and its Affiliates and Attribution Parties shall include the number of shares of Common Stock held by the Holder, its Affiliates and Attribution Parties plus the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant with respect to which such determination is being made, but shall exclude the number of shares of Common Stock which would be issuable upon (i) exercise of the remaining, nonexercised portion of this Warrant beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties and (ii) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or nonconverted portion of any other securities of the Company (including, without limitation, any other Common Stock Equivalents) subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise analogous to the limitation contained herein beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties. Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this Section 2(e), beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, it being acknowledged by the Holder that the Company is not representing to the Holder that such calculation is in compliance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the Holder is solely responsible for any schedules required to be filed in accordance therewith. To the extent that the limitation contained in this Section 2(e) applies, the determination of whether this Warrant is exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable shall be in the sole discretion of the Holder, and the submission of a Notice of Exercise shall be deemed to be the Holder’s determination of whether this Warrant is

 

8


exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable, in each case subject to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation. To ensure compliance with this restriction, each Holder will be deemed to represent to the Company each time it delivers a Notice of Exercise that such Notice of Exercise has not violated the restrictions set forth in this paragraph, and the Company shall have no obligation to verify or confirm the accuracy of such determination. In addition, a determination as to any group status as contemplated above shall be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this Section 2(e), in determining the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock, a Holder may rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as reflected in (A) the Company’s most recent periodic or annual report filed with the Commission, as the case may be, (B) a more recent public announcement by the Company or (C) a more recent written notice by the Company or the Transfer Agent setting forth the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding (the “Reported Outstanding Share Number”). If the Company receives an Exercise Notice from the Holder at a time when the actual number of outstanding shares of Common Stock is less than the Reported Outstanding Share Number, the Company shall (i) promptly notify the Holder in writing of the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding and, to the extent that such Exercise Notice would otherwise cause the Holder’s beneficial ownership, as determined pursuant to this Section 2(e), to exceed the lesser of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation and Maximum Percentage, the Holder must notify the Company of a reduced number of Warrant Shares to be purchased pursuant to such Exercise Notice (the number of shares by which such purchase is reduced, the “Reduction Shares”) and (ii) as soon as reasonably practicable, the Company shall return to the Holder any exercise price paid by the Holder for the Reduction Shares. Upon the written or oral request of a Holder, the Company shall within two (2) Trading Days confirm orally and in writing to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding. In any case, the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock shall be determined after giving effect to the conversion or exercise of securities of the Company, including this Warrant, by the Holder or its Affiliates or Attribution Parties since the date as of which such number of outstanding shares of Common Stock was reported. The “Beneficial Ownership Limitation” shall be 4.99% (or, upon election by a Holder prior to the issuance of any Warrants, 9.99%) of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant. The Holder, upon notice to the Company, may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation provisions of this Section 2(e), provided that the Beneficial Ownership Limitation in no event exceeds 9.99% of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of this Warrant held by the Holder and the provisions of this Section 2(e) shall continue to apply. Any increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until the 61st day after such notice is delivered to the Company. The provisions of this paragraph shall be construed and implemented in a manner otherwise than in strict conformity with the terms of this Section 2(e) to correct this paragraph (or any portion hereof) which may be defective or inconsistent with the intended Beneficial Ownership Limitation herein contained or to make changes or

 

9


supplements necessary or desirable to properly give effect to such limitation. The limitations contained in this paragraph shall apply to a successor holder of this Warrant.

f) Call Provision. Subject to the provisions of Section 2(e) and this Section 2(f), if, after the Initial Exercise Date, (i) the VWAP for any 30 consecutive Trading Days (the “Measurement Period,” which 30 consecutive Trading Day period shall not have commenced until after the Initial Exercise Date) exceeds $____2 (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and the like after the Initial Exercise Date), (ii) the average daily volume for such Measurement Period exceeds $500,000 per Trading Day and (iii) the Holder is not in possession of any information that constitutes, or might constitute, material non-public information which was provided by the Company, any of its Subsidiaries, or any of their officers, directors, employees, agents or Affiliates, then the Company may, within one (1) Trading Day of the end of such Measurement Period, call for cancellation of all or any portion of this Warrant for which a Notice of Exercise has not yet been delivered (such right, a “Call”) for consideration equal to $0.001 per Warrant Share. To exercise this right, the Company must deliver to the Holder an irrevocable written notice (a “Call Notice”), indicating therein the portion of unexercised portion of this Warrant to which such notice applies. If the conditions set forth below for such Call are satisfied from the period from the date of the Call Notice through and including the Call Date (as defined below), then any portion of this Warrant subject to such Call Notice for which a Notice of Exercise shall not have been received by the Call Date will be cancelled at 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the tenth Trading Day after the date the Call Notice is received by the Holder (such date and time, the “Call Date”). Any unexercised portion of this Warrant to which the Call Notice does not pertain will be unaffected by such Call Notice. In furtherance thereof, the Company covenants and agrees that it will honor all Notices of Exercise with respect to Warrant Shares subject to a Call Notice that are tendered through 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the Call Date. The parties agree that any Notice of Exercise delivered following a Call Notice which calls less than all of the Warrants shall first reduce to zero the number of Warrant Shares subject to such Call Notice prior to reducing the remaining Warrant Shares available for purchase under this Warrant. For example, if (A) this Warrant then permits the Holder to acquire 100 Warrant Shares, (B) a Call Notice pertains to 75 Warrant Shares, and (C) prior to 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the Call Date the Holder tenders a Notice of Exercise in respect of 50 Warrant Shares, then (x) on the Call Date the right under this Warrant to acquire 25 Warrant Shares will be automatically cancelled, (y) the Company, in the time and manner required under this Warrant, will have issued and delivered to the Holder 50 Warrant Shares in respect of the exercises following receipt of the Call Notice, and (z) the Holder may, until the Termination Date, exercise this Warrant for 25 Warrant Shares (subject to adjustment as herein provided and subject to subsequent Call Notices). Subject again to the provisions of this Section 2(f), the Company may deliver subsequent Call Notices for any portion of this Warrant for which the Holder shall not have delivered a Notice of Exercise. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth in this Warrant, the Company may not deliver a Call Notice or require the cancellation of this Warrant (and any such Call Notice shall be void), unless, from the beginning of the Measurement Period through the Call Date, (1) the Company shall have honored in accordance with the terms

 

2 

300% of the then Exercise Price.

 

10


of this Warrant all Notices of Exercise delivered by 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the Call Date, and (2) a registration statement shall be effective as to all Warrant Shares and the prospectus thereunder available for use by the Company for the sale of all such Warrant Shares to the Holder, and (3) the Common Stock shall be listed or quoted for trading on the Trading Market, and (4) there is a sufficient number of authorized shares of Common Stock for issuance of all Warrant Shares, and (5) the issuance of all Warrant Shares subject to a Call Notice shall not cause a breach of any provision of Section 2(e) herein. The Company’s right to call the Warrants under this Section 2(f) shall be exercised ratably among the Holders based on each Holder’s initial purchase of Warrants.

Section 3. Certain Adjustments.

a) Stock Dividends and Splits. If the Company, at any time while this Warrant is outstanding: (i) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions on shares of its Common Stock or any other equity or equity equivalent securities payable in shares of Common Stock (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Company upon exercise of this Warrant), (ii) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares, (iii) combines (including by way of reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, or (iv) issues by reclassification of shares of the Common Stock any shares of capital stock of the Company, then in each case the Exercise Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding treasury shares, if any) outstanding immediately before such event and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding treasury shares, if any) outstanding immediately after such event, and the number of shares issuable upon exercise of this Warrant shall be proportionately adjusted such that the aggregate Exercise Price of this Warrant shall remain unchanged. Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 3(a) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision, combination or re-classification.

b) Subsequent Rights Offerings. In addition to any adjustments pursuant to Section 3(a) above, if at any time the Company grants, issues or sells any Common Stock Equivalents or rights to purchase stock, warrants, securities or other property pro rata to the record holders of any class of shares of Common Stock other than an Exempt Issuance (as defined in the Underwriting Agreement) (the “Purchase Rights”), then the Holder will be entitled to acquire, upon the terms applicable to such Purchase Rights, the aggregate Purchase Rights which the Holder would have acquired if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date on which a record is taken for the grant, issuance or sale of such Purchase Rights, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the grant, issue or sale of such Purchase Rights (provided, however, that, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Purchase Right would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such

 

11


Purchase Right to such extent (or beneficial ownership of such shares of Common Stock as a result of such Purchase Right to such extent) and such Purchase Right to such extent shall be held in abeyance for the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

c) Pro Rata Distributions. During such time as this Warrant is outstanding, if the Company shall declare or make any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of shares of Common Stock, other than as in Section 3(a), by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities, property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a “Distribution”), at any time after the issuance of this Warrant, then, in each such case, the Holder shall be entitled to participate in such Distribution to the same extent that the Holder would have participated therein if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date of which a record is taken for such Distribution, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the participation in such Distribution (provided, however, that, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Distribution would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Distribution to such extent (or in the beneficial ownership of any shares of Common Stock as a result of such Distribution to such extent) and the portion of such Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

d) Fundamental Transaction. If, at any time while this Warrant is outstanding, (i) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any merger or consolidation of the Company with or into another Person, (ii) the Company, directly or indirectly, effects any sale, lease, license, assignment, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of its assets in one or a series of related transactions, (iii) any, direct or indirect, purchase offer, tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Company or another Person) is completed pursuant to which holders of Common Stock are permitted to sell, tender or exchange their shares for other securities, cash or property and has been accepted by the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding Common Stock, (iv) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any reclassification, reorganization or recapitalization of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property, or (v) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions consummates a stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination (including, without limitation, a reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off, merger or scheme of arrangement) with another Person or group of Persons whereby such other Person or group acquires more than 50% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock or more than 50% of the voting power of the common equity of the Company (not including any shares of Common Stock held by the other Person or other Persons making or party to, or associated or affiliated with the other

 

12


Persons making or party to, such stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination) (each a “Fundamental Transaction”), then, upon any subsequent exercise of this Warrant, the Holder shall have the right to receive, for each Warrant Share that would have been issuable upon such exercise immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction, at the option of the Holder (without regard to any limitation in Section 2(e) on the exercise of this Warrant), the number of shares of Common Stock of the successor or acquiring corporation or of the Company, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration (the “Alternate Consideration”) receivable as a result of such Fundamental Transaction by a holder of the number of shares of Common Stock for which this Warrant is exercisable immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 2(e) on the exercise of this Warrant). For purposes of any such exercise, the determination of the Exercise Price shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Company shall apportion the Exercise Price among the Alternate Consideration in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holder shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any exercise of this Warrant following such Fundamental Transaction. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, in the event of a Fundamental Transaction, the Company or any Successor Entity (as defined below) shall, at the Holder’s option, exercisable at any time concurrently with, or within 30 days after, the consummation of the Fundamental Transaction (or, if later, the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction), purchase this Warrant from the Holder by paying to the Holder an amount of cash equal to the Black Scholes Value (as defined below) of the remaining unexercised portion of this Warrant on the date of the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction; provided, however, that, if the Fundamental Transaction is not within the Company’s control, including not approved by the Company’s Board of Directors, the Holder shall only be entitled to receive from the Company or any Successor Entity the same type or form of consideration (and in the same proportion), at the Black Scholes Value of the unexercised portion of this Warrant, that is being offered and paid to the holders of Common Stock of the Company in connection with the Fundamental Transaction, whether that consideration be in the form of cash, stock or any combination thereof, or whether the holders of Common Stock are given the choice to receive from among alternative forms of consideration in connection with the Fundamental Transaction; provided, further, that if holders of Common Stock of the Company are not offered or paid any consideration in such Fundamental Transaction, such holders of Common Stock will be deemed to have received common stock of the Successor Entity (which Entity may be the Company following such Fundamental Transaction) in such Fundamental Transaction. “Black Scholes Value” means the value of this Warrant calculated using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model obtained from the “OV” function on Bloomberg determined as of the day immediately following the public announcement of the applicable contemplated Fundamental Transaction, or, if such contemplated Fundamental Transaction is not publicly announced, the date such Fundamental Transaction has occurred or is consummated, for pricing purposes and reflecting (i) a risk-

 

13


free interest rate corresponding to the U.S. Treasury rate for a period equal to the remaining term of this Warrant as of such date of request, (ii) an expected volatility equal to the greater of 100% and the 100 day volatility obtained from the HVT function on Bloomberg as of the Trading Day immediately following the public announcement of the applicable contemplated Fundamental Transaction, or, if such contemplated Fundamental Transaction is not publicly announced, the date such Fundamental Transaction has occurred or is consummated, (iii) the underlying price per share used in such calculation shall be the greater of (x) the highest VWAP of the Common Stock during the period beginning on the Trading Day prior to the execution of definitive documentation relating to the applicable Fundamental Transaction and ending on (A) the Trading Day immediately following the public announcement of such contemplated Fundamental Transaction, if the applicable contemplated Fundamental Transaction is publicly announced or (B) the Trading Day immediately following the consummation of the applicable Fundamental Transaction if the applicable contemplated Fundamental Transaction is not publicly announced and (y) the sum of the price per share being offered in cash, if any, plus the value of any non-cash consideration, if any, being offered in such Fundamental Transaction, (iv) a remaining option time equal to the time between the date of the public announcement of the applicable contemplated Fundamental Transaction or, if such applicable contemplated Fundamental Transaction is not publicly announced, the date such Fundamental Transaction has occurred or is consummated, (v) a zero cost of borrow, and (vi) a 365 day annualization factor. The payment of the Black Scholes Value will be made by wire transfer of immediately available funds (or such other consideration) within the later of (i) five Business Days of the Holder’s election and (ii) the date of consummation of the Fundamental Transaction. The Company shall cause any successor entity in a Fundamental Transaction in which the Company is not the survivor (the “Successor Entity”) to assume in writing all of the obligations of the Company under this Warrant in accordance with the provisions of this Section 3(d) pursuant to written agreements in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the holders of Warrants representing at least a majority of the shares of Common Stock underlying the Warrants covered by the Registration Statement (the “Required Holders”) and approved by the Required Holders (without unreasonable delay) prior to such Fundamental Transaction and shall, at the option of the Holder, deliver to the Holder in exchange for this Warrant a security of the Successor Entity evidenced by a written instrument substantially similar in form and substance to this Warrant which is exercisable for a corresponding number of shares of capital stock of such Successor Entity (or its parent entity) equivalent to the shares of Common Stock acquirable and receivable upon exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on the exercise of this Warrant) prior to or concurrent with such Fundamental Transaction, and with an exercise price which applies the exercise price hereunder to such shares of capital stock (but taking into account the relative value of the shares of Common Stock pursuant to such Fundamental Transaction and the value of such shares of capital stock, such number of shares of capital stock and such exercise price being for the purpose of protecting the economic value of this Warrant immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction), and which is reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Holder. Upon the occurrence of any such Fundamental Transaction, the Successor Entity shall be added to the term “Company” under this Warrant (so that from and after the occurrence or consummation of such Fundamental Transaction, each and every provision

 

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of this Warrant referring to the “Company” shall refer instead to each of the Company and the Successor Entity or Successor Entities, jointly and severally), and the Successor Entity or Successor Entities, jointly and severally with the Company, may exercise every right and power of the Company prior thereto and the Successor Entity or Successor Entities shall assume all of the obligations of the Company prior thereto under this Warrant with the same effect as if the Company and such Successor Entity or Successor Entities, jointly and severally, had been named as the Company herein.

e) Calculations. All calculations under this Section 3 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 3, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding treasury shares, if any) issued and outstanding.

f) Notice to Holder.

i. Adjustment to Exercise Price. Whenever the Exercise Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 3, the Company shall promptly deliver to the Holder by email a notice setting forth the Exercise Price after such adjustment and any resulting adjustment to the number of Warrant Shares and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.

ii. Notice to Allow Exercise by Holder. If (A) the Company shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Company shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Company shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Company shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the Common Stock, any consolidation or merger to which the Company (or any of its Subsidiaries) is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of its assets, or any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property, or (E) the Company shall authorize the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Company, then, in each case, the Company shall cause to be delivered by email to the Holder at its last email address as it shall appear upon the Warrant Register of the Company, at least 10 calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption, rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that

 

15


holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange; provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice. To the extent that any notice provided in this Warrant constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Company or any of the Subsidiaries, the Company shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K. The Holder shall remain entitled to exercise this Warrant during the period commencing on the date of such notice to the effective date of the event triggering such notice except as may otherwise be expressly set forth herein.

g) Voluntary Adjustment By Company. Subject to the rules and regulations of the Trading Market, the Company may at any time during the term of this Warrant reduce the then current Exercise Price to any amount and for any period of time deemed appropriate by the board of directors of the Company. The Company may extend the duration of this Warrants by delaying the Termination Date; provided, however, that the Company will provide notice of not less than ten (10) days to the Holder.

Section 4. Transfer of Warrant.

a) Transferability. Subject to compliance with any applicable securities laws, this Warrant and all rights hereunder (including, without limitation, any registration rights) are transferable, in whole or in part, upon surrender of this Warrant at the principal office of the Company or its designated agent, together with a written assignment of this Warrant substantially in the form attached hereto duly executed by the Holder or its agent or attorney and funds sufficient to pay any transfer taxes payable upon the making of such transfer. Upon such surrender and, if required, such payment, the Company shall execute and deliver a new Warrant or Warrants in the name of the assignee or assignees, as applicable, and in the denomination or denominations specified in such instrument of assignment, and shall issue to the assignor a new Warrant evidencing the portion of this Warrant not so assigned, and this Warrant shall promptly be cancelled. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Holder shall not be required to physically surrender this Warrant to the Company unless the Holder has assigned this Warrant in full, in which case, the Holder shall surrender this Warrant to the Company within three (3) Trading Days of the date on which the Holder delivers an assignment form to the Company assigning this Warrant in full. The Warrant, if properly assigned in accordance herewith, may be exercised by a new holder for the purchase of Warrant Shares without having a new Warrant issued.

b) New Warrants. If this Warrant is not held in global form through DTC (or any successor depositary), this Warrant may be divided or combined with other Warrants upon presentation hereof at the aforesaid office of the Company, together with a written notice specifying the names and denominations in which new Warrants are to be issued, signed by the Holder or its agent or attorney. Subject to compliance with Section 4(a), as

 

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to any transfer which may be involved in such division or combination, the Company shall execute and deliver a new Warrant or Warrants in exchange for the Warrant or Warrants to be divided or combined in accordance with such notice. All Warrants issued on transfers or exchanges shall be dated the initial issuance date of this Warrant and shall be identical with this Warrant except as to the number of Warrant Shares issuable pursuant thereto.

c) Warrant Register. The Warrant Agent shall register this Warrant, upon records to be maintained by the Warrant Agent for that purpose (the “Warrant Register”), in the name of the record Holder hereof from time to time. The Company and the Warrant Agent may deem and treat the registered Holder of this Warrant as the absolute owner hereof for the purpose of any exercise hereof or any distribution to the Holder, and for all other purposes, absent actual notice to the contrary.

Section 5. Miscellaneous.

a) No Rights as Stockholder Until Exercise; No Settlement in Cash. This Warrant does not entitle the Holder to any voting rights, dividends or other rights as a stockholder of the Company prior to the exercise hereof as set forth in Section 2(d)(i), except as expressly set forth in Section 3. Without limiting any rights of a Holder to receive Warrant Shares on a “cashless exercise” pursuant to Section 2(c) or to receive cash payments pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) and Section 2(d)(iv) herein, in no event shall the Company be required to net cash settle an exercise of this Warrant.

b) Loss, Theft, Destruction or Mutilation of Warrant. The Company covenants that upon receipt by the Company or the Warrant Agent of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it of the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of this Warrant or any stock certificate relating to the Warrant Shares, and in case of loss, theft or destruction, of indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to it (which, in the case of the Warrant, shall not include the posting of any bond), and upon surrender and cancellation of such Warrant or stock certificate, if mutilated, the Company will make and deliver a new Warrant or stock certificate of like tenor and dated as of such cancellation, in lieu of such Warrant or stock certificate.

c) Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays, etc. If the last or appointed day for the taking of any action or the expiration of any right required or granted herein shall not be a Business Day, then such action may be taken or such right may be exercised on the next succeeding Business Day.

d) Authorized Shares.

The Company covenants that, during the period the Warrant is outstanding, it will reserve from its authorized and unissued Common Stock a sufficient number of shares to provide for the issuance of the Warrant Shares upon the exercise of any purchase rights under this Warrant. The Company further covenants that its issuance of this Warrant shall constitute full authority to its officers who are charged with the duty of issuing the necessary Warrant Shares upon the exercise of the purchase rights under this Warrant. The Company will

 

17


take all such reasonable action as may be necessary to assure that such Warrant Shares may be issued as provided herein without violation of any applicable law or regulation, or of any requirements of the Trading Market upon which the Common Stock may be listed. The Company covenants that all Warrant Shares which may be issued upon the exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant will, upon exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant and payment for such Warrant Shares in accordance herewith, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and free from all taxes, liens and charges created by the Company in respect of the issue thereof (other than taxes in respect of any transfer occurring contemporaneously with such issue).

Except and to the extent as waived or consented to by the Holder, the Company shall not by any action, including, without limitation, amending its certificate of incorporation or through any reorganization, transfer of assets, consolidation, merger, dissolution, issue or sale of securities or any other voluntary action, avoid or seek to avoid the observance or performance of any of the terms of this Warrant, but will at all times in good faith assist in the carrying out of all such terms and in the taking of all such actions as may be necessary or appropriate to protect the rights of Holder as set forth in this Warrant against impairment. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Company will (i) not increase the par value of any Warrant Shares above the amount payable therefor upon such exercise immediately prior to such increase in par value, (ii) take all such action as may be necessary or appropriate in order that the Company may validly and legally issue fully paid and nonassessable Warrant Shares upon the exercise of this Warrant and (iii) use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain all such authorizations, exemptions or consents from any public regulatory body having jurisdiction thereof, as may be, necessary to enable the Company to perform its obligations under this Warrant.

Before taking any action which would result in an adjustment in the number of Warrant Shares for which this Warrant is exercisable or in the Exercise Price, the Company shall obtain all such authorizations or exemptions thereof, or consents thereto, as may be necessary from any public regulatory body or bodies having jurisdiction thereof.

e) Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Warrant shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Warrant (whether brought against a party hereto or their respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit,

 

18


action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Warrant and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law. If either party shall commence an action, suit or proceeding to enforce any provisions of this Warrant, the prevailing party in such action, suit or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for their reasonable attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.

f) Restrictions. The Holder acknowledges that the Warrant Shares acquired upon the exercise of this Warrant, if not registered, and the Holder does not utilize cashless exercise, will have restrictions upon resale imposed by state and federal securities laws.

g) Nonwaiver and Expenses. No course of dealing or any delay or failure to exercise any right hereunder on the part of Holder shall operate as a waiver of such right or otherwise prejudice the Holder’s rights, powers or remedies. Without limiting any other provision of this Warrant, if the Company willfully and knowingly fails to comply with any provision of this Warrant, which results in any material damages to the Holder, the Company shall pay to the Holder such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover any costs and expenses including, but not limited to, reasonable attorneys’ fees, including those of appellate proceedings, incurred by the Holder in collecting any amounts due pursuant hereto or in otherwise enforcing any of its rights, powers or remedies hereunder.

h) Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Exercise, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Company, at Palisade Bio, Inc.,                     , Attention: Chief Financial Officer, email address: ___________, or such other email address or address as the Company may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Company hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the e-mail address or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the Company. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the next Trading Day after the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (iii) the second Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. Notwithstanding any other

 

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provision of this Warrant, as to any Warrant not held in certificated form, where this Warrant provides for notice of any event to a Holder, such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to DTC (or any successor depository) pursuant to the procedures of DTC (or such successor depository).

i) Limitation of Liability. No provision hereof, in the absence of any affirmative action by the Holder to exercise this Warrant to purchase Warrant Shares, and no enumeration herein of the rights or privileges of the Holder, shall give rise to any liability of the Holder for the purchase price of any Common Stock or as a stockholder of the Company, whether such liability is asserted by the Company or by creditors of the Company.

j) Remedies. The Holder, in addition to being entitled to exercise all rights granted by law, including recovery of damages, will be entitled to specific performance of its rights under this Warrant. The Company agrees that monetary damages would not be adequate compensation for any loss incurred by reason of a breach by it of the provisions of this Warrant and hereby agrees to waive and not to assert the defense in any action for specific performance that a remedy at law would be adequate.

k) Successors and Assigns. Subject to applicable securities laws, this Warrant and the rights and obligations evidenced hereby shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the successors and permitted assigns of the Company and the successors and permitted assigns of Holder. The provisions of this Warrant are intended to be for the benefit of any Holder from time to time of this Warrant and shall be enforceable by the Holder or holder of Warrant Shares.

l) Amendment. This Warrant may be modified or amended or the provisions hereof waived with the written consent of the Company, on the one hand, and Holders or the beneficial owner of this Warrants representing more than 50% of the Warrant Shares issuable under the Warrants then-outstanding as of the date such consent is sought, on the other hand.

m) Severability. Wherever possible, each provision of this Warrant shall be interpreted in such manner as to be effective and valid under applicable law, but if any provision of this Warrant shall be prohibited by or invalid under applicable law, such provision shall be ineffective to the extent of such prohibition or invalidity, without invalidating the remainder of such provisions or the remaining provisions of this Warrant.

n) Headings. The headings used in this Warrant are for the convenience of reference only and shall not, for any purpose, be deemed a part of this Warrant.

o) Warrant Agency Agreement. If this Warrant is held in global form through DTC (or any successor depositary), this Warrant is issued subject to the Warrant Agency Agreement. To the extent any provision of this Warrant conflicts with the express provisions of the Warrant Agency Agreement, the provisions of this Warrant shall govern and be controlling.

 

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********************

(Signature Page Follows)

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this Warrant to be executed by its officer thereunto duly authorized as of the date first above indicated.

 

PALISADE BIO, INC.

By:

 

             

 

Name:

Title:

 

22


NOTICE OF EXERCISE

 

TO:

PALISADE BIO, INC.

(1) The undersigned hereby elects to purchase ________ Warrant Shares of the Company pursuant to the terms of the attached Warrant (only if exercised in full), and tenders herewith payment of the exercise price in full, together with all applicable transfer taxes, if any.

(2) Payment shall take the form of (check applicable box):

[ ] in lawful money of the United States; or

[ ] if permitted the cancellation of such number of Warrant Shares as is necessary, in accordance with the formula set forth in subsection 2(c), to exercise this Warrant with respect to the maximum number of Warrant Shares purchasable pursuant to the cashless exercise procedure set forth in subsection 2(c).

(3) Please issue said Warrant Shares in the name of the undersigned or in such other name as is specified below:

 

                                                                              

The Warrant Shares shall be delivered to the following DWAC Account Number:

 

                                                                              

 

                                                                              

 

                                                                              

[SIGNATURE OF HOLDER]

Name of Investing Entity: ________________________________________________________________________

Signature of Authorized Signatory of Investing Entity: _________________________________________________

Name of Authorized Signatory: ___________________________________________________________________

Title of Authorized Signatory: ____________________________________________________________________

Date: ________________________________________________________________________________________


ASSIGNMENT FORM

(To assign the foregoing Warrant, execute this form and supply required information. Do not use this form to purchase shares.)

FOR VALUE RECEIVED, the foregoing Warrant and all rights evidenced thereby are hereby assigned to

 

Name:   

             

   (Please Print)
Address:   

         

   (Please Print)
Phone Number:   

 

Email Address:   

 

 

Dated: _______________ __, ______

  
Holder’s Signature:____________________ _   
Holder’s Address:____________________ _   
EX-4.31

Exhibit 4.31

WARRANT AGENCY AGREEMENT

WARRANT AGENCY AGREEMENT, dated as of __________, 2022 (“Agreement”), between Palisade Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation, (the “Company”), and American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, with offices at 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219 (the “Warrant Agent”).

W I T N E S S E T H

WHEREAS, pursuant to a registered offering by the Company of shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), shares of Series B convertible preferred stock that are convertible into shares of Common Stock (the “Preferred Stock”), and warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock (the “Warrants”), pursuant to an effective registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-265769), as amended (the “Registration Statement”), the Company wishes to issue Warrants in book entry form entitling the respective holders of the Warrants (the “Holders”, which term shall include a Holder’s transferees, successors and assigns and “Holder” shall include, if the Warrants are held in “street name”, a Participant (as defined below) or a designee appointed by such Participant) to purchase an aggregate of up to ______ shares of Common Stock (which includes Warrants to purchase up to ______ shares of Common Stock pursuant to an overallotment option granted to the underwriters) upon the terms and subject to the conditions hereinafter set forth (the “Offering”);

WHEREAS, the shares of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, and Warrants to be issued in connection with the Offering shall be immediately separable and will be issued separately, but will be purchased together, as units, in the Offering; and

WHEREAS, the Company wishes the Warrant Agent to act on behalf of the Company, and the Warrant Agent is willing so to act, in connection with the issuance, registration, transfer, exchange, exercise and replacement of the Warrants and, in the Warrant Agent’s capacity as the Company’s transfer agent, the delivery of the Warrant Shares (as defined below).

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the mutual agreements herein set forth, the parties hereby agree as follows:

Section 1. Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Agreement, the following terms have the meanings indicated:

(a) “Affiliate” has the meaning ascribed to it in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).

(b) “Business Day” means any day other than Saturday, Sunday or other day on which commercial banks in The City of New York are authorized or required by law to remain closed; provided that banks shall not be deemed to be authorized or obligated to be closed due to a “shelter in place,” “non-essential employee” or similar closure of physical branch locations at the direction of any governmental authority if such banks’ electronic


funds transfer systems (including for wire transfers) are open for use by customers on such day.

(c) “Close of Business” on any given date means 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on such date; provided, however, that if such date is not a Business Day it means 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on the next succeeding Business Day.

(e) “Person” means an individual, corporation, association, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, unincorporated organization, government or political subdivision thereof or governmental agency or other entity.

(f) “Warrant Certificate” means a certificate in substantially the form attached as Exhibit 1 hereto, representing such number of Warrant Shares as is indicated therein, provided that any reference to the delivery of a Warrant Certificate in this Agreement shall include delivery of a Definitive Certificate or a Global Warrant (each as defined below).

(g) “Warrant Shares” means the shares of Common Stock underlying the Warrants and issuable upon exercise of the Warrants.

All other capitalized terms used but not otherwise defined herein shall have the meaning ascribed to such terms in the Warrant Certificate.

Section 2. Appointment of Warrant Agent. The Company hereby appoints the Warrant Agent to act as agent for the Company in accordance with the terms and conditions hereof, and the Warrant Agent hereby accepts such appointment.

Section 3. Global Warrants.

(a) The Warrants shall be registered securities and shall be evidenced by a global warrant (the “Global Warrants”), in the form of the Warrant Certificate, which shall be deposited with the Warrant Agent and registered in the name of Cede & Co., a nominee of The Depository Trust Company (the “Depositary”), or as otherwise directed by the Depositary. Ownership of beneficial interests in the Warrants shall be shown on, and the transfer of such ownership shall be effected through, records maintained by (i) the Depositary or its nominee for each Global Warrant or (ii) institutions that have accounts with the Depositary (such institution, with respect to a Warrant in its account, a “Participant”).

(b) If the Depositary subsequently ceases to make its book-entry settlement system available for the Warrants, the Company may instruct the Warrant Agent regarding other arrangements for book-entry settlement. In the event that the Warrants are not eligible for, or it is no longer necessary to have the Warrants available in, book-entry form, the Warrant Agent shall provide written instructions to the Depositary to deliver to the Warrant Agent for cancellation each Global Warrant, and the Company shall instruct the Warrant Agent to deliver to each Holder a Warrant Certificate.

 

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(c) A Holder has the right to elect at any time or from time to time a Warrant Exchange (as defined below) pursuant to a Warrant Certificate Request Notice (as defined below). Upon written notice by a Holder to the Company and the Warrant Agent for the exchange of some or all of such Holder’s Global Warrants for a separate certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 1 (such separate certificate, a “Definitive Certificate”) evidencing the same number of Warrants, which request shall be in the form attached hereto as Annex A (a “Warrant Certificate Request Notice” and the date of delivery of such Warrant Certificate Request Notice by the Holder, the “Warrant Certificate Request Notice Date” and the deemed surrender upon delivery by the Holder to the Warrant Agent of a number of Global Warrants for the same number of Warrants evidenced by a Warrant Certificate, a “Warrant Exchange”), the Warrant Agent shall promptly effect the Warrant Exchange and shall promptly issue and deliver to the Holder a Definitive Certificate for such number of Warrants in the name set forth in the Warrant Certificate Request Notice. Such Definitive Certificate shall be dated the original issue date of the Warrants, shall be manually executed by an authorized signatory of the Company, shall be in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 1, and shall be reasonably acceptable in all respects to such Holder. In connection with a Warrant Exchange, the Company agrees to deliver, or to direct the Warrant Agent to deliver, the Definitive Certificate to the Holder within ten (10) Business Days of the Warrant Certificate Request Notice pursuant to the delivery instructions in the Warrant Certificate Request Notice (“Warrant Certificate Delivery Date”). If the Company fails for any reason to deliver to the Holder the Definitive Certificate subject to the Warrant Certificate Request Notice by the Warrant Certificate Delivery Date, the Company shall pay to the Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $1,000 of Warrant Shares evidenced by such Definitive Certificate (based on the VWAP (as defined in the Warrants) of the Common Stock on the Warrant Certificate Request Notice Date), $10 per Business Day for each Business Day after such Warrant Certificate Delivery Date until such Definitive Certificate is delivered or, prior to delivery of such Warrant Certificate, the Holder rescinds such Warrant Exchange. The Company covenants and agrees that, upon the date of delivery of the Warrant Certificate Request Notice, the Holder shall be deemed to be the holder of the Definitive Certificate and, notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth herein, the Definitive Certificate shall be deemed for all purposes to contain all of the terms and conditions of the Warrants evidenced by such Warrant Certificate and the terms of this Agreement, other than Sections 3(c) and 9 herein, shall not apply to the Warrants evidenced by the Definitive Certificate. For purposes of clarity, the Warrant Agent may act as warrant agent on behalf of the Company with respect to any Definitive Certificate requested and issued pursuant to this section, provided that the terms of this Agreement shall not apply to the Definitive Certificate and the terms of the Definitive Certificate shall exclusively govern. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Agreement, in the event of consistency between any provision in this Agreement and any provision in the Definitive Certificate, as it may from time to time be amended, the terms of the Definitive Certificate shall control.

Section 4. Form of Warrant. The Warrant Certificate, together with the form of election to purchase Common Stock (“Notice of Exercise”) and the form of assignment to be printed on the reverse thereof, shall be in the form of Exhibit 1 hereto.

 

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Section 5. Countersignature and Registration. The Warrant Certificates shall be executed on behalf of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or Vice President, by .pdf via email signature. The Warrant Certificates shall be countersigned by the Warrant Agent by .pdf via email signature and shall not be valid for any purpose unless so countersigned. In case any officer of the Company who shall have signed any of the Warrant Certificates shall cease to be such officer of the Company before countersignature by the Warrant Agent and issuance and delivery by the Company, such Warrant Certificates, nevertheless, may be countersigned by the Warrant Agent, issued and delivered with the same force and effect as though the person who signed such Warrant Certificate had not ceased to be such officer of the Company; and any Warrant Certificate may be signed on behalf of the Company by any person who, at the actual date of the execution of such Warrant Certificate, shall be a proper officer of the Company to sign such Warrant Certificate, although at the date of the execution of this Agreement any such person was not such an officer.

The Warrant Agent will keep or cause to be kept, at one of its offices, or at the office of one of its agents, books for registration and transfer of the Warrant Certificates issued hereunder. Such books shall show the names and addresses of the respective Holders of the Warrant Certificates, the number of warrants evidenced on the face of each of such Warrant Certificate and the date of each of such Warrant Certificate. The Warrant Agent will create a special account for the issuance of Warrant Certificates.

Section 6. Transfer, Split Up, Combination and Exchange of Warrant Certificates; Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Warrant Certificates. With respect to the Global Warrant, subject to the provisions of the Warrant Certificate and the last sentence of this first paragraph of Section 6 and subject to applicable law, rules or regulations, or any “stop transfer” instructions the Company may give to the Warrant Agent, at any time after the closing date of the Offering, and at or prior to the Close of Business on the Termination Date (as such term is defined in the Warrant Certificate), any Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates or Global Warrant or Global Warrants may be transferred, split up, combined or exchanged for another Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates or Global Warrant or Global Warrants, entitling the Holder to purchase a like number of shares of Common Stock as the Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates or Global Warrant or Global Warrants surrendered then entitled such Holder to purchase. Any Holder desiring to transfer, split up, combine or exchange any Warrant Certificate or Global Warrant shall make such request in writing delivered to the Warrant Agent, and shall surrender the Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates to be transferred, split up, combined or exchanged at the principal office of the Warrant Agent, provided that no such surrender is applicable to the Holder of a Global Warrant. Any requested transfer of Warrants, whether in book-entry form or certificate form, shall be accompanied by reasonable evidence of authority of the party making such request that may be required by the Warrant Agent. Thereupon the Warrant Agent shall, subject to the last sentence of this first paragraph of Section 6, countersign and deliver to the Person entitled thereto a Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates, as the case may be, as so requested. The Company may require payment from the Holder of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any transfer, split up, combination or exchange of Warrant Certificates. The Company shall compensate the Warrant Agent per the fee schedule mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto and provided separately on the date hereof.

 

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Upon receipt by the Warrant Agent of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it of the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of a Warrant Certificate, which evidence shall include an affidavit of loss, or in the case of mutilated certificates, the certificate or portion thereof remaining, and, in case of loss, theft or destruction, of indemnity in customary form and amount (but shall not include the posting of any bond by the Holder), and satisfaction of any other reasonable requirements established by Section 8-405 of the Uniform Commercial Code as in effect in the State of Delaware, and reimbursement to the Company and the Warrant Agent of all reasonable expenses incidental thereto, and upon surrender to the Warrant Agent and cancellation of the Warrant Certificate if mutilated, the Company will make and deliver a new Warrant Certificate of like tenor to the Warrant Agent for delivery to the Holder in lieu of the Warrant Certificate so lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated.

Section 7. Exercise of Warrants; Exercise Price; Termination Date.

(a) The Warrants shall be exercisable commencing on the Initial Exercise Date. The Warrants shall cease to be exercisable and shall terminate and become void as set forth in the Warrant Certificate. Subject to the foregoing and to Section 7(b) below, the Holder of a Warrant may exercise the Warrant in whole or in part upon surrender of the Warrant Certificate, if required, with the executed Notice of Exercise and payment of the Exercise Price, which may be made, at the option of the Holder, by wire transfer or by certified or official bank check in United States dollars, to the Warrant Agent at the principal office of the Warrant Agent or to the office of one of its agents as may be designated by the Warrant Agent from time to time. In the case of the Holder of a Global Warrant, the Holder shall deliver the executed Notice of Exercise and the payment of the Exercise Price pursuant to Section 2(a) of the Warrant. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Agreement, a holder whose interest in a Global Warrant is a beneficial interest in a Global Warrant held in book-entry form through the Depositary (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), shall effect exercises by delivering to the Depositary (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable) the appropriate instruction form for exercise, complying with the procedures to effect exercise that are required by the Depositary (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable). The Company acknowledges that the bank accounts maintained by the Warrant Agent in connection with the services provided under this Agreement will be in its name and that the Warrant Agent may receive investment earnings in connection with the investment at Warrant Agent risk and for its benefit of funds held in those accounts from time to time. Neither the Company nor the Holders will receive interest on any deposits or Exercise Price. No ink-original Notice of Exercise shall be required, nor shall any medallion guarantee (or other type of guarantee or notarization) of any Notice of Exercise be required. The Company hereby acknowledges and agrees that, with respect to a holder whose interest in a Global Warrant is a beneficial interest in a Global Warrant held in book-entry form through the Depositary (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), upon delivery of irrevocable instructions to such holder’s Participant to exercise such warrants, that solely for purposes of Regulation SHO that such holder shall be deemed to have exercised such warrants.

(b) Upon receipt of a Notice of Exercise for a cashless exercise pursuant to Section 2(c) of the Warrant (each, a “Cashless Exercise”), the Company will promptly calculate and transmit to the Warrant Agent the number of Warrant Shares issuable in connection with such Cashless

 

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Exercise and deliver a copy of the Notice of Exercise to the Warrant Agent, which shall issue such number of Warrant Shares in connection with such Cashless Exercise.

(c) Upon the exercise of the Warrant Certificate pursuant to the terms of Section 2 of the Warrant Certificate, the Warrant Agent shall cause, or shall provide notice to the Company in order that the Company shall cause, the Warrant Shares underlying such Warrant Certificate or Global Warrant to be delivered to or upon the order of the Holder of such Warrant Certificate or Global Warrant, registered in such name or names as may be designated by such Holder, no later than the Warrant Share Delivery Date (as such term is defined in the Warrant Certificate). If the Company is then a participant in the DWAC system of the Depositary and either (A) there is an effective registration statement permitting the issuance of the Warrant Shares to or resale of the Warrant Shares by Holder or (B) the Warrant is being exercised via Cashless Exercise, then the certificates for Warrant Shares shall be transmitted by the Warrant Agent, or, at the direction of the Company, by the Company’s transfer agent, to the Holder by crediting the account of the Holder’s broker with the Depositary through its DWAC system. For the avoidance of doubt, if the Company becomes obligated to pay any amounts to any Holders pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) or 2(d)(iv) of the Warrant Certificate, such obligation shall be solely that of the Company and not that of the Warrant Agent. Notwithstanding anything else to the contrary in this Agreement, except in the case of a Cashless Exercise, if any Holder fails to duly deliver payment to the Warrant Agent of an amount equal to the aggregate Exercise Price of the Warrant Shares to be purchased upon exercise of such Holder’s Warrant by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, the Warrant Agent, or, at the direction of the Company, by the Company’s transfer agent, will not obligated to deliver such Warrant Shares (via DWAC or otherwise) until following receipt of such payment, and the applicable Warrant Share Delivery Date shall be deemed extended by one day for each day (or part thereof) until such payment is delivered to the Warrant Agent.

(d) The Warrant Agent shall deposit all funds received by it in payment of the Exercise Price for all Warrants in the account of the Company maintained with the Warrant Agent for such purpose (or to such other account as directed by the Company in writing) and shall advise the Company via email at the end of each day on which notices of exercise are received or funds for the exercise of any Warrant are received of the amount so deposited to its account.

(e) In case the Holder of any Warrant Certificate exercises fewer than all Warrants evidenced thereby and surrenders such Warrant Certificate in connection with such partial exercise, a new Warrant Certificate evidencing the number of Warrant Shares equivalent to the number of Warrant Shares remaining unexercised may be issued by the Warrant Agent to the Holder of such Warrant Certificate or to his duly authorized assigns in accordance with Section 2(d)(ii) of the Warrant, subject to the provisions of Section 6 hereof.

Section 8. Cancellation and Destruction of Warrant Certificates. All Warrant Certificates surrendered for the purpose of exercise, transfer, split up, combination or exchange shall, if surrendered to the Company or to any of its agents, be delivered to the Warrant Agent for cancellation or in canceled form, or, if surrendered to the Warrant Agent, shall be canceled by it, and no Warrant Certificates shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Agreement. The Company shall deliver to the Warrant Agent for cancellation and retirement, and the Warrant Agent shall so cancel and retire, any other Warrant Certificate

 

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purchased or acquired by the Company otherwise than upon the exercise thereof. The Warrant Agent shall deliver all canceled Warrant Certificates to the Company, or shall, at the written request of the Company, destroy such canceled Warrant Certificates, and in such case shall deliver a certificate of destruction thereof to the Company, subject to any applicable law, rule or regulation requiring the Warrant Agent to retain such canceled certificates.

Section 9. Certain Representations; Reservation and Availability of Shares of Common Stock or Cash.

(a) This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and, assuming due authorization, execution and delivery hereof by the Warrant Agent, constitutes a valid and legally binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, and the Warrants have been duly authorized, executed and issued by the Company and, assuming due authentication thereof by the Warrant Agent pursuant hereto and payment therefor by the Holders as provided in the Registration Statement, constitute valid and legally binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms and entitled to the benefits hereof; in each case except as enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other similar laws relating to or affecting creditors’ rights generally or by general equitable principles (regardless of whether such enforceability is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law).

(b) As of the date hereof and prior to the Offering, the authorized capital stock of the Company consists of (i) ______________ shares of Common Stock, of which ______________ shares of Common Stock are issued and outstanding, and ______ shares of Common Stock are reserved for issuance upon exercise of the Warrants, and (ii) ______________ shares of preferred stock, of which ______________ shares of preferred stock are issued and outstanding, and convertible into _____________ shares of Common Stock. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, there are no other outstanding obligations, warrants, options or other rights to subscribe for or purchase from the Company any class of capital stock of the Company.

(c) The Company covenants and agrees that it will cause to be reserved and kept available out of its authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock or its authorized and issued shares of Common Stock held in its treasury, free from preemptive rights, the number of shares of Common Stock that will be sufficient to permit the exercise in full of all outstanding Warrants.

(d) The Warrant Agent will create a special account for the issuance of Common Stock upon the exercise of Warrants.

(e) The Company further covenants and agrees that it will pay when due and payable any and all federal and state transfer taxes and charges which may be payable in respect of the original issuance or delivery of the Warrant Certificates or certificates evidencing Common Stock upon exercise of the Warrants. The Company shall not, however, be required to pay any tax or governmental charge which may be payable in

 

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respect of any transfer involved in the transfer or delivery of Warrant Certificates or the issuance or delivery of certificates for Common Stock in a name other than that of the Holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing Warrants surrendered for exercise or to issue or deliver any certificate for shares of Common Stock upon the exercise of any Warrants until any such tax or governmental charge shall have been paid (any such tax or governmental charge being payable by the Holder of such Warrant Certificate at the time of surrender) or until it has been established to the Company’s reasonable satisfaction that no such tax or governmental charge is due.

Section 10. Common Stock Record Date. Each Person in whose name any certificate for shares of Common Stock is issued (or to whose broker’s account is credited shares of Common Stock through the DWAC system) upon the exercise of Warrants shall for all purposes be deemed to have become the holder of record for the Common Stock represented thereby on, and such certificate shall be dated, the date on which submission of the Notice of Exercise was made, provided that the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant is duly surrendered (but only if required herein) and payment of the Exercise Price (and any applicable transfer taxes) is received on or prior to the Warrant Share Delivery Date; provided, however, that if the date of submission of the Notice of Exercise is a date upon which the Common Stock transfer books of the Company are closed, such Person shall be deemed to have become the record holder of such shares on, and such certificate shall be dated, the next succeeding day on which the Common Stock transfer books of the Company are open.

Section 11. Adjustment of Exercise Price, Number of Shares of Common Stock or Number of the Company Warrants. The Exercise Price, the number of shares covered by each Warrant and the number of Warrants outstanding are subject to adjustment from time to time as provided in Section 3 of the Warrant Certificate. In the event that at any time, as a result of an adjustment made pursuant to Section 3 of the Warrant Certificate, the Holder of any Warrant thereafter exercised shall become entitled to receive any shares of capital stock of the Company other than shares of Common Stock, thereafter the number of such other shares so receivable upon exercise of any Warrant shall be subject to adjustment from time to time in a manner and on terms as nearly equivalent as practicable to the provisions with respect to the shares contained in Section 3 of the Warrant Certificate, and the provisions of Sections 7, 11 and 13 of this Agreement with respect to the shares of Common Stock shall apply on like terms to any such other shares. All Warrants originally issued by the Company subsequent to any adjustment made to the Exercise Price pursuant to the Warrant Certificate shall evidence the right to purchase, at the adjusted Exercise Price, the number of shares of Common Stock purchasable from time to time hereunder upon exercise of the Warrants, all subject to further adjustment as provided herein.

Section 12. Certification of Adjusted Exercise Price or Number of Shares of Common Stock. Whenever the Exercise Price or the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of each Warrant is adjusted as provided in Section 11 or 13, the Company shall (a) promptly prepare a certificate setting forth the Exercise Price of each Warrant as so adjusted, and a brief statement of the facts accounting for such adjustment, (b) promptly file with the Warrant Agent and with each transfer agent for the Common Stock a copy of such certificate and (c) instruct the Warrant Agent to send a brief summary thereof to each Holder of a Warrant Certificate.

 

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Section 13. Fractional Shares of Common Stock.

(a) The Company shall not issue fractions of Warrants or distribute Warrant Certificates which evidence fractional Warrants. Whenever any fractional Warrant would otherwise be required to be issued or distributed, the actual issuance or distribution shall reflect a rounding of such fraction either up or down to the nearest whole Warrant.

(b) The Company shall not issue fractions of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of Warrants or distribute stock certificates which evidence fractional shares of Common Stock. Whenever any fraction of a share of Common Stock would otherwise be required to be issued or distributed, the actual issuance or distribution in respect thereof shall be made in accordance with Section 2(d)(v) of the Warrant Certificate.

Section 14. Conditions of the Warrant Agent’s Obligations. The Warrant Agent accepts its obligations herein set forth upon the terms and conditions hereof, including the following to all of which the Company agrees and to all of which the rights hereunder of the Holders from time to time of the Warrant Certificates shall be subject:

(a) Indemnification. The Company also agrees to indemnify the Warrant Agent for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without gross negligence, or willful misconduct on the part of the Warrant Agent, finally adjudicated to have been directly caused by Warrant Agent hereunder, including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending against any claim of such liability. The Warrant Agent shall be under no obligation to institute or defend any action, suit, or legal proceeding in connection herewith or to take any other action likely to involve the Warrant Agent in expense, unless first indemnified to the Warrant Agent’s satisfaction. The indemnities provided by this paragraph shall survive the resignation or discharge of the Warrant Agent or the termination of this Agreement. Anything in this Agreement to the contrary notwithstanding, in no event shall the Warrant Agent be liable under or in connection with the Agreement for indirect, special, incidental, punitive or consequential losses or damages of any kind whatsoever, including but not limited to lost profits, whether or not foreseeable, even if the Warrant Agent has been advised of the possibility thereof and regardless of the form of action in which such damages are sought, and the Warrant Agent’s aggregate liability to the Company, or any of the Company’s representatives or agents, under this Section 14(a) or under any other term or provision of this Agreement, whether in contract, tort, or otherwise, is expressly limited to, and shall not exceed in any circumstances, one years fees received by the Warrant Agent as fees and charges under this Agreement, but not including reimbursable expenses previously reimbursed to the Warrant Agent by the Company hereunder.

(b) Agent for the Company. In acting under this Agreement and in connection with the Warrant Certificates, the Warrant Agent is acting solely as agent of the Company and does not assume any obligations or relationship of agency or trust for or with any of the Holders of Warrant Certificates or beneficial owners of Warrants.

 

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(c) Counsel. The Warrant Agent may consult with counsel satisfactory to it, which may include counsel for the Company, and the written advice of such counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice of such counsel.

(d) Documents. The Warrant Agent shall be protected and shall incur no liability for or in respect of any action taken or omitted by it in reliance upon any Warrant Certificate, notice, direction, consent, certificate, affidavit, statement or other paper or document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been presented or signed by the proper parties.

(e) Certain Transactions. The Warrant Agent, and its officers, directors and employees, may become the owner of, or acquire any interest in, Warrants, with the same rights that it or they would have if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder, and, to the extent permitted by applicable law, it or they may engage or be interested in any financial or other transaction with the Company and may act on, or as depositary, trustee or agent for, any committee or body of Holders of Warrant Securities or other obligations of the Company as freely as if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder. Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to prevent the Warrant Agent from acting as trustee under any indenture to which the Company is a party.

(f) No Liability for Interest. Unless otherwise agreed with the Company, the Warrant Agent shall have no liability for interest on any monies at any time received by it pursuant to any of the provisions of this Agreement or of the Warrant Certificates.

(g) No Liability for Invalidity. The Warrant Agent shall have no liability with respect to any invalidity of this Agreement or any of the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon).

(h) No Responsibility for Representations. The Warrant Agent shall not be responsible for any of the recitals or representations herein or in the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon), all of which are made solely by the Company.

(i) No Implied Obligations. The Warrant Agent shall be obligated to perform only such duties as are herein and in the Warrant Certificates specifically set forth and no implied duties or obligations shall be read into this Agreement or the Warrant Certificates against the Warrant Agent. The Warrant Agent shall not be under any obligation to take any action hereunder which may tend to involve it in any expense or liability, the payment of which within a reasonable time is not, in its reasonable opinion, assured to it. The Warrant Agent shall not be accountable or under any duty or responsibility for the use by the Company of any of the Warrant Certificates authenticated by the Warrant Agent and delivered by it to the Company pursuant to this Agreement or for the application by the Company of the proceeds of the Warrant Certificates. The Warrant Agent shall have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by the Company in the performance of its covenants or agreements contained herein or in the Warrant Certificates or in the case of

 

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the receipt of any written demand from a Holder of a Warrant Certificate with respect to such default, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any duty or responsibility to initiate or attempt to initiate any proceedings at law.

Section 15. Purchase or Consolidation or Change of Name of Warrant Agent. Any entity into which the Warrant Agent or any successor Warrant Agent may be merged or with which it may be consolidated, or any entity resulting from any merger or consolidation to which the Warrant Agent or any successor Warrant Agent shall be party, or any entity succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Warrant Agent or any successor Warrant Agent, shall be the successor to the Warrant Agent under this Agreement without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, provided that such corporation would be eligible for appointment as a successor Warrant Agent under the provisions of Section 17. In case at the time such successor Warrant Agent shall succeed to the agency created by this Agreement any of the Warrant Certificates shall have been countersigned but not delivered, any such successor Warrant Agent may adopt the countersignature of the predecessor Warrant Agent and deliver such Warrant Certificates so countersigned; and in case at that time any of the Warrant Certificates shall not have been countersigned, any successor Warrant Agent may countersign such Warrant Certificates either in the name of the predecessor Warrant Agent or in the name of the successor Warrant Agent; and in all such cases such Warrant Certificates shall have the full force provided in the Warrant Certificates and in this Agreement.

In case at any time the name of the Warrant Agent shall be changed and at such time any of the Warrant Certificates shall have been countersigned but not delivered, the Warrant Agent may adopt the countersignature under its prior name and deliver such Warrant Certificates so countersigned; and in case at that time any of the Warrant Certificates shall not have been countersigned, the Warrant Agent may countersign such Warrant Certificates either in its prior name or in its changed name; and in all such cases such Warrant Certificates shall have the full force provided in the Warrant Certificates and in this Agreement.

Section 16. Duties of Warrant Agent. The Warrant Agent undertakes the duties and obligations imposed by this Agreement upon the following terms and conditions, by all of which the Company, by its acceptance hereof, shall be bound:

(a) The Warrant Agent may consult with legal counsel reasonably acceptable to the Company (who may be legal counsel for the Company), and the opinion of such counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection to the Warrant Agent as to any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and in accordance with such opinion.

(b) Whenever in the performance of its duties under this Agreement the Warrant Agent shall deem it necessary or desirable that any fact or matter be proved or established by the Company prior to taking or suffering any action hereunder, such fact or matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by a certificate signed by the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or Vice President of the Company; and such certificate shall be full authentication to the Warrant Agent for any action taken or suffered in good faith by it under the provisions of this Agreement in reliance upon such certificate.

 

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(c) Subject to the limitation set forth in Section 14, the Warrant Agent shall be liable hereunder only for its own gross negligence or willful misconduct, or for a breach by it of this Agreement.

(d) The Warrant Agent shall not be liable for or by reason of any of the statements of fact or recitals contained in this Agreement or in the Warrant Certificates (except its countersignature thereof) by the Company or be required to verify the same, but all such statements and recitals are and shall be deemed to have been made by the Company only.

(e) The Warrant Agent shall not be under any responsibility in respect of the validity of this Agreement or the execution and delivery hereof (except the due execution hereof by the Warrant Agent) or in respect of the validity or execution of any Warrant Certificate (except its countersignature thereof); nor shall it be responsible for any breach by the Company of any covenant or condition contained in this Agreement or in any Warrant Certificate; nor shall it be responsible for the adjustment of the Exercise Price or the making of any change in the number of shares of Common Stock required under the provisions of Section 11 or 13 or responsible for the manner, method or amount of any such change or the ascertaining of the existence of facts that would require any such adjustment or change (except with respect to the exercise of Warrants evidenced by the Warrant Certificates after actual notice of any adjustment of the Exercise Price); nor shall it by any act hereunder be deemed to make any representation or warranty as to the authorization or reservation of any shares of Common Stock to be issued pursuant to this Agreement or any Warrant Certificate or as to whether any shares of Common Stock will, when issued, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

(f) Each party hereto agrees that it will perform, execute, acknowledge and deliver or cause to be performed, executed, acknowledged and delivered all such further and other acts, instruments and assurances as may reasonably be required by the other party hereto for the carrying out or performing by any party of the provisions of this Agreement.

(g) The Warrant Agent is hereby authorized to accept instructions with respect to the performance of its duties hereunder from the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or Vice President of the Company, and to apply to such officers for advice or instructions in connection with its duties, and it shall not be liable and shall be indemnified and held harmless for any action taken or suffered to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with instructions of any such officer, provided Warrant Agent carries out such instructions without gross negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct.

(h) The Warrant Agent and any shareholder, director, officer or employee of the Warrant Agent may buy, sell or deal in any of the Warrants or other securities of the Company or become pecuniarily interested in any transaction in which the Company may be interested, or contract with or lend money to the Company or otherwise act as fully and freely as though it were not Warrant Agent under this Agreement. Nothing herein shall preclude the Warrant Agent from acting in any other capacity for the Company or for any other legal entity.

 

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(i) The Warrant Agent may execute and exercise any of the rights or powers hereby vested in it or perform any duty hereunder either itself or by or through its attorney or agents, and the Warrant Agent shall not be answerable or accountable for any act, default, neglect or misconduct of any such attorney or agents or for any loss to the Company resulting from any such act, default, neglect or misconduct, provided reasonable care was exercised in the selection and continued employment thereof.

Section 17. Change of Warrant Agent. The Warrant Agent may resign and be discharged from its duties under this Agreement upon 30 days’ notice in writing sent to the Company and to each transfer agent of the Common Stock, and to the Holders of the Warrant Certificates. The Company may remove the Warrant Agent or any successor Warrant Agent upon 30 days’ notice in writing, sent to the Warrant Agent or successor Warrant Agent, as the case may be, and to each transfer agent of the Common Stock, and to the Holders of the Warrant Certificates. If the Warrant Agent shall resign or be removed or shall otherwise become incapable of acting, the Company shall appoint a successor to the Warrant Agent. If the Company shall fail to make such appointment within a period of 30 days after such removal or after it has been notified in writing of such resignation or incapacity by the resigning or incapacitated Warrant Agent or by the Holder of a Warrant Certificate (who shall, with such notice, submit his Warrant Certificate for inspection by the Company), then the Holder of any Warrant Certificate may apply to any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a new Warrant Agent, provided that, for purposes of this Agreement, the Company shall be deemed to be the Warrant Agent until a new warrant agent is appointed. Any successor Warrant Agent, whether appointed by the Company or by such a court, shall be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States or of a state thereof, in good standing, which is authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authority and which has at the time of its appointment as Warrant Agent a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000. After appointment, the successor Warrant Agent shall be vested with the same powers, rights, duties and responsibilities as if it had been originally named as Warrant Agent without further act or deed; but the predecessor Warrant Agent shall deliver and transfer to the successor Warrant Agent any property at the time held by it hereunder, and execute and deliver any further assurance, conveyance, act or deed necessary for the purpose. Not later than the effective date of any such appointment, the Company shall file notice thereof in writing with the predecessor Warrant Agent and each transfer agent of the Common Stock, and mail a notice thereof in writing to the Holders of the Warrant Certificates. However, failure to give any notice provided for in this Section 17, or any defect therein, shall not affect the legality or validity of the resignation or removal of the Warrant Agent or the appointment of the successor Warrant Agent, as the case may be.

Section 18. Issuance of New Warrant Certificates. Notwithstanding any of the provisions of this Agreement or of the Warrants to the contrary, the Company may, at its option, issue new Warrant Certificates evidencing Warrants in such form as may be approved by its Board of Directors to reflect any adjustment or change in the Exercise Price per share and the number or kind or class of shares of stock or other securities or property purchasable under the several Warrant Certificates made in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

13


Section 19. Notices. Notices or demands authorized by this Agreement to be given or made (i) by the Warrant Agent or by the Holder of any Warrant Certificate to or on the Company, (ii) subject to the provisions of Section 17, by the Company or by the Holder of any Warrant Certificate to or on the Warrant Agent or (iii) by the Company or the Warrant Agent to the Holder of any Warrant Certificate, shall be deemed given (a) on the date delivered, if delivered personally, (b) on the first Business Day following the deposit thereof with Federal Express or another recognized overnight courier, if sent by Federal Express or another recognized overnight courier, (c) on the fourth Business Day following the mailing thereof with postage prepaid, if mailed by registered or certified mail (return receipt requested), and (d) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via email attachment at or prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on a Business Day and (e) the next Business Day after the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via email attachment on a day that is not a Business Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Business Day, in each case to the parties at the following addresses (or at such other address for a party as shall be specified by like notice):

(a) If to the Company, to:

Palisade Bio, Inc.

Attention:

Email:

(b) If to the Warrant Agent, to:

American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC

6201 15th Avenue

Brooklyn, New York 11219

Email: Reorgwarrants@astfinancial.com

For any notice delivered by email to be deemed given or made, such notice must be followed by notice sent by overnight courier service to be delivered on the next business day following such email, unless the recipient of such email has acknowledged via return email receipt of such email.

(c) If to the Holder of any Warrant Certificate, to the address of such Holder as shown on the registry books of the Company. Any notice required to be delivered by the Company to the Holder of any Warrant may be given by the Warrant Agent on behalf of the Company. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, where this Agreement provides for notice of any event to a Holder of any Warrant, such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the procedures of the Depositary or its designee.

Section 20. Supplements and Amendments.

 

14


(a) The Company and the Warrant Agent may from time to time supplement or amend this Agreement without the approval of any Holders of Global Warrants in order to add to the covenants and agreements of the Company for the benefit of the Holders of the Global Warrants or to surrender any rights or power reserved to or conferred upon the Company in this Agreement, provided that such addition or surrender shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Global Warrants or Warrant Certificates in any material respect.

(b) In addition to the foregoing, with the consent of Holders of Warrants entitled, upon exercise thereof, to receive not less than a majority of the shares of Common Stock issuable thereunder, the Company and the Warrant Agent may modify this Agreement for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Agreement or modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Global Warrants; provided, however, that no modification of the terms (including but not limited to the adjustments described in Section 11) upon which the Warrants are exercisable or the rights of holders of Warrants to receive liquidated damages or other payments in cash from the Company (including but not limited to pursuant to Section 3(d) of the Warrants) or reducing the percentage required for consent to modification of this Agreement may be made without the consent of the Holder of each outstanding Warrant Certificate affected thereby; provided further, however, that no amendment hereunder shall affect any terms of any Warrant Certificate issued in a Warrant Exchange. As a condition precedent to the Warrant Agent’s execution of any amendment, the Company shall deliver to the Warrant Agent a certificate from a duly authorized officer of the Company that states that the proposed amendment complies with the terms of this Section 20.

Section 21. Successors. All covenants and provisions of this Agreement by or for the benefit of the Company or the Warrant Agent shall bind and inure to the benefit of their respective successors and assigns hereunder.

Section 22. Benefits of this Agreement. Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to give any Person other than the Company, the Holders of Warrant Certificates and the Warrant Agent any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Agreement. This Agreement shall be for the sole and exclusive benefit of the Company, the Warrant Agent and the Holders of the Warrant Certificates.

Section 23. Governing Law. This Agreement and each Warrant Certificate and Global Warrant issued hereunder shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York without giving effect to the conflicts of law principles thereof.

Section 24. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of counterparts and each of such counterparts shall for all purposes be deemed to be an original, and all such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

Section 25. Captions. The captions of the sections of this Agreement have been inserted for convenience only and shall not control or affect the meaning or construction of any of the provisions hereof.

 

15


Section 26. Information. The Company agrees to promptly provide to the Holders of the Warrants any information it provides to the holders of the Common Stock, except to the extent any such information is publicly available on the EDGAR system (or any successor thereof) of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

[SIGNATURE PAGE FOLLOWS]

 

16


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

PALISADE BIO, INC.
By:  

             

Name: Thomas M. Hallam, Ph.D.
Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

AMERICAN STOCK TRANSFER & TRUST COMPANY, LLC
By:  

             

Name:
Title:

 

17


Annex A: Form of Warrant Certificate Request Notice

WARRANT CERTIFICATE REQUEST NOTICE

To: American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC as Warrant Agent for Palisade Bio, Inc. (the “Company”)

The undersigned Holder of Common Stock Purchase Warrants (“Warrants”) in the form of Global Warrants issued by the Company hereby elects to receive a Warrant Certificate evidencing the Warrants held by the Holder as specified below:

 

1.

Name of Holder of Warrants in form of Global Warrants: _____________________________

 

2.

Name of Holder in Warrant Certificate (if different from name of Holder of Warrants in form of Global Warrants): ________________________________

 

3.

Number of Warrants in name of Holder in form of Global Warrants: ___________________

 

4.

Number of Warrants for which Warrant Certificate shall be issued: __________________

 

5.

Number of Warrants in name of Holder in form of Global Warrants after issuance of Warrant Certificate, if any: ___________

 

6.

Warrant Certificate shall be delivered to the following address:

The undersigned hereby acknowledges and agrees that, in connection with this Warrant Exchange and the issuance of the Warrant Certificate, the Holder is deemed to have surrendered the number of Warrants in form of Global Warrants in the name of the Holder equal to the number of Warrants evidenced by the Warrant Certificate.

[SIGNATURE OF HOLDER]

Name of Investing Entity: ____________________________________________________

Signature of Authorized Signatory of Investing Entity: ______________________________

Name of Authorized Signatory: ________________________________________________

Title of Authorized Signatory: _________________________________________________

Date: _______________________________________________________________


Exhibit 1: Form of Warrant Certificate

EX-4.32

Exhibit 4.32

LOCK-UP AND VOTING AGREEMENT

This Lock-Up and Voting Agreement (this “Lock-Up and Voting Agreement”) is being delivered to you in connection with an understanding by and between Palisade Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and the person or persons named on the signature pages hereto (collectively, the “Holder”).

Reference is hereby made to the public offering (the “Offering”) of Class A Units (“Class A Units”) consisting of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”) and warrants (the “Warrants”) and Class B Units (“Class B Units”) consisting of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and Warrants to the public investors in the Offering.

The Company has filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission a Registration Statement, No. 333-265769 on Form S-1 (as the same may be amended from time to time, the “Registration Statement”) for the registration, under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) of, among other securities, the Warrants and the Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants (the “Warrant Shares,” the shares of Common Stock a part of the Class A Units and the shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, the “Shares”).

The Company is requiring a lock-up and voting agreement in substance the same as this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement from all purchasers of securities having an aggregate gross sales price of $25,000 or more in the Offering.

The Holder agrees solely with the Company that, from the public announcement of the final pricing of the Offering (the “Effective Date”) and ending at 5:00 pm (New York City time) on __________ (such period, the “Restricted Period”), neither the Holder, nor any affiliate of the Holder (“Affiliate”) which (x) had or has knowledge of the transactions contemplated by the Offering, (y) has or shares discretion relating to the Holder’s investments or trading or information concerning the Holder’s investments, including in respect of the Shares, or (z) is subject to the Holder’s review or input concerning such Affiliate’s investments or trading (together, the “Holder’s Trading Affiliates”), collectively, shall sell, dispose or otherwise transfer, directly or indirectly, (including, without limitation, any sales, short sales, swaps or any derivative transactions that would be equivalent to any sales or short positions) on any trading day on the primary trading market of the Company during the Restricted Period, shares of Common Stock, including the Shares, beneficially owned by the Holder during the Restricted Period (“Restricted Shares”).

Additionally, the Holder agrees to vote all shares of Common Stock it beneficially owns on and after the Effective Date, including the Shares as described in the Company’s preliminary proxy statement on Schedule 14A, to be filed by the Company with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission following the Effective Date relating to a special meeting of the Company’s stockholders. For clarity, the Holder’s agreement to vote its shares of Common Stock in accordance with the immediately preceding sentence, does not require the Holder to vote its shares for or against any particular proposal or proposals, whether or not such proposal or proposals are recommended by the Company’s board of directors.

Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, during the Restricted Period, the Holder may, directly or indirectly, sell or transfer all, or any part, of the Restricted Shares to any third party (an “Assignee”) in a transaction which does not need to be reported on the Nasdaq consolidated tape, without complying with (or otherwise limited by) the restrictions set forth in this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement; provided that, as a condition to any such sale or transfer an authorized signatory of the Company and such Assignee duly execute and deliver a Lock-Up and Voting Agreement in the form of this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement (an “Assignee Agreement”, and each such transfer, a “Permitted Transfer”).


Any notices, consents, waivers or other communications required or permitted to be given under the terms of this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement must be in writing and shall be delivered to the Holder at the e-mail address or facsimile number on the signature page hereto.

This Lock-Up and Voting Agreement constitutes the entire agreement among the parties hereto with respect to the subject matter hereof and supersedes all prior negotiations, letters and understandings relating to the subject matter hereof and are fully binding on the parties hereto.

This Lock-Up and Voting Agreement may be executed simultaneously in any number of counterparts. Each counterpart shall be deemed to be an original, and all such counterparts shall constitute one and the same instrument. This Lock-Up and Voting Agreement may be executed and accepted by facsimile or .PDF signature and any such signature shall be of the same force and effect as an original signature.

The terms of this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement shall be binding upon and shall inure to the benefit of each of the parties hereto and their respective successors and assigns.

This Lock-Up and Voting Agreement may not be amended or modified except in writing signed by each of the parties hereto.

All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Lockup and Voting Agreement shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof.

Each party hereto acknowledges that, in view of the uniqueness of the transactions contemplated by this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement, the other party or parties hereto will not have an adequate remedy at law for money damages in the event that this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement has not been performed in accordance with its terms, and therefore agrees that such other party or parties shall be entitled to seek specific enforcement of the terms hereof in addition to any other remedy it may seek, at law or in equity.

The obligations of the Holder under this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement are several and not joint with the obligations of any other holder of any of the Shares issued under the Registration Statement (each, an “Other Holder”), and the Holder shall not be responsible in any way for the performance of the obligations of any Other Holder under any such other agreement. Nothing contained in this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement, and no action taken by the Holder pursuant hereto, shall be deemed to constitute the Holder and Other Holders as a partnership, an association, a joint venture or any other kind of entity, or create a presumption that the Holder and the Other Holders are in any way acting in concert or as a group with respect to such obligations or the transactions contemplated by this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement and the Company acknowledges that the Holder and the Other Holders are not acting in concert or as a group with respect to such obligations or the transactions contemplated by this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement or any other agreement. The Company and the Holder confirm that the Holder has independently participated in the negotiation of the transactions contemplated hereby with the advice of its own counsel and advisors. The Holder shall be entitled to independently protect and enforce its rights, including, without limitation, the rights arising out of this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement, and it shall not be necessary for any Other Holder to be joined as an additional party in any proceeding for such purpose.

The Company hereby represents and warrants as of the date hereof and covenants and agrees from and after the date hereof that none of the terms offered to any Other Holder with respect to any restrictions on the sale of Class A Units or Class B Units substantially in the form of this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement (or any amendment, modification, waiver or release thereof) (each an “Other Agreement”), is or will be more favorable to such Other Holder than those of the Holder and this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement, and the Company agrees to use reasonable best efforts to enforce the terms of any Other


Agreement. If, and whenever on or after the date hereof, the Company enters into an Other Agreement with terms that are materially different from this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement, then (i) the Company shall provide notice thereof to the Holder promptly following the occurrence thereof and (ii) the terms and conditions of this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement shall be, without any further action by the Holder or the Company, automatically amended and modified in an economically and legally equivalent manner such that the Holder shall receive the benefit of the more favorable terms and/or conditions (as the case may be) set forth in such Other Agreement; provided that, upon written notice to the Company, at any time the Holder may elect not to accept the benefit of any such amended or modified term or condition, in which event the term or condition contained in this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement shall apply to the Holder as it was in effect immediately prior to such amendment or modification as if such amendment or modification never occurred with respect to the Holder. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply similarly and equally to each Other Agreement.

[The remainder of the page is intentionally left blank]


The parties hereto have executed this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement as of the date first set forth above.

 

PALISADE BIO, INC.
By:    
  Name: Thomas M. Hallam, Ph.D.
  Title: Chief Executive Officer
  E-mail:

[Signature Page to Palisade Bio, Inc. Lock-Up and Voting Agreement]


The parties hereto have executed this Lock-Up and Voting Agreement as of the date first set forth above.

Agreed to and Acknowledged:

 

HOLDER
By:    
  Name:
  Title:
  E-mail:
  Facsimile:

[Signature Page to Palisade Bio, Inc. Lock-Up and Voting Agreement]